3 Biotech

, 8:286 | Cite as

Inhibitory effects of Lepidium sativum polysaccharide extracts on TNF-α production in Escherichia coli-stimulated mouse

  • Ajaz Ahmad
  • Basit Latief Jan
  • Mohammad Raish
  • Khalid M. AlkharfyEmail author
  • Abdul Ahad
  • Altaf Khan
  • Majid Ahmad Ganaie
  • Mohammed Abbas Ali Hamidaddin
Original Article


The present study was designed to study the quantitative effects of extraction time, temperature and solvent to sample ratio on the yield of Lepidium sativum polysaccharides (LSP) using a Box–Behnken design. The activities of the optimized LSP extract were then tested in an in vivo experimental system of Escherichia coli (E. coli)-induced endotoxin shock. The optimal polysaccharide extraction conditions were established by the equation of regression and evaluation of the response surface contour plots: extraction time 5.2 h; temperature 95 °C and ratio of water to raw material 31.89 mL/g. Subsequently, an in vivo endotoxin shock was induced in mice with a single E. coli i.p. injection. Septic mice showed a substantial raise in the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in plasma, whereas mice treated with LSP after E. coli injection showed considerable lower plasma levels of TNF-α (P < 0.05). These results suggest that LSP have beneficial effects when administered to mice with endotoxin shock by diminishing the pro-inflammatory response. The systemic activity of LSP indicated that the extract has a significant inhibitory effect against E. coli-induced inflammation by reducing the circulating levels of TNF-α. Further studies are warranted to explore the clinical implications of such observations.


Lepidium sativum Polysaccharides Box–Behnken design TNF-α inhibitory property 



The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through Research Group Number (RG-1438-069).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ajaz Ahmad
    • 1
  • Basit Latief Jan
    • 1
  • Mohammad Raish
    • 2
  • Khalid M. Alkharfy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Abdul Ahad
    • 2
  • Altaf Khan
    • 3
  • Majid Ahmad Ganaie
    • 4
  • Mohammed Abbas Ali Hamidaddin
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutics, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of Pharmacology, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Pharmacology, College of PharmacyPrince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz UniversityAl KharjSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of PharmacyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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