Inhibitory effects of Lepidium sativum polysaccharide extracts on TNF-α production in Escherichia coli-stimulated mouse
- 33 Downloads
The present study was designed to study the quantitative effects of extraction time, temperature and solvent to sample ratio on the yield of Lepidium sativum polysaccharides (LSP) using a Box–Behnken design. The activities of the optimized LSP extract were then tested in an in vivo experimental system of Escherichia coli (E. coli)-induced endotoxin shock. The optimal polysaccharide extraction conditions were established by the equation of regression and evaluation of the response surface contour plots: extraction time 5.2 h; temperature 95 °C and ratio of water to raw material 31.89 mL/g. Subsequently, an in vivo endotoxin shock was induced in mice with a single E. coli i.p. injection. Septic mice showed a substantial raise in the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in plasma, whereas mice treated with LSP after E. coli injection showed considerable lower plasma levels of TNF-α (P < 0.05). These results suggest that LSP have beneficial effects when administered to mice with endotoxin shock by diminishing the pro-inflammatory response. The systemic activity of LSP indicated that the extract has a significant inhibitory effect against E. coli-induced inflammation by reducing the circulating levels of TNF-α. Further studies are warranted to explore the clinical implications of such observations.
KeywordsLepidium sativum Polysaccharides Box–Behnken design TNF-α inhibitory property
The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through Research Group Number (RG-1438-069).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Doke S, Guha M (2014) Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed—an important medicinal source: a review. J Nat Prod Plant Resour 4(1):69–80Google Scholar
- Juma A (2007) The effects of Lepidium sativum seeds on fracture-induced healing in rabbits. MedGenMed Medscape Gen Med 9(2):23Google Scholar
- Kirtikar KR (2005) Indian medicinal plant, vol 1. International Book Distributors, DehradunGoogle Scholar
- Manohar DVG, Nagesh S, Jain V, Shivaprasad HN (2012) Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium sativum Linn (Brassicaceae): a review. Int J Phytother Res 2(1):1–7Google Scholar
- Nadkarni KM. (2005) Indian plant and drug with their medicinal properties and uses. Srishti Book Distributors, Delhi, pp 216–217Google Scholar
- Raval N (2016) A comprehensive review of Lepidium sativum Linn, a traditional medicinal plant. World J Pharm Pharmaceutical Sci 5(5):593–1601Google Scholar
- Remick DG, Kunkel RG, Larrick JW, Kunkel SL (1987) Acute in vivo effects of human recombinant tumor necrosis factor. Lab Investig J Tech Methods Pathol 56(6):583–590Google Scholar
- Saxena PK, Gupta DK, Sharma RD, Gupta Ritu SKK (2015) Prospects of phytocological activity of Lepidium sativum: a review. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 5(2):145–151Google Scholar
- Sharma S, Agarwal N (2011) Nourishing and healing powers of garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn); a review. Ind J Nat Prod Resour 2(3):292–297Google Scholar
- Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, Freeze H, Stanley P, Bertozzi CR, Hart GW, Etzler ME (2009) Essentials of glycobiology. 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor (NY)Google Scholar
- Yang B, Jiang YM, Zhao MM, Shi J, Wang LZ (2008) Effects of ultrasonic extraction on the physical and chemical properties of polysaccharides from longan fruit pericarp. Polym Degrad Stab 93(1):268–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2007.09.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar