Advertisement

3 Biotech

, 8:271 | Cite as

Bacterial cellulase treatment for enhancing reactivity of pre-hydrolysed kraft dissolving pulp for viscose

  • Chakarvati Sango
  • Prabhjot Kaur
  • Nishi K. Bhardwaj
  • Jitender Sharma
Original Article
  • 30 Downloads

Abstract

To improve the process economy of reactivity improvement, crude cellulase from Bacillus subtilis was employed for the treatment and significant dissolving pulp properties were analyzed. With increase in enzyme dose from 0.25 to 2 U/g o.d. pulp, improvement in Fock reactivity and alkali solubilities (S10 and S18) were observed with simultaneous reduction in viscosity and yield. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the molecular level effects on dissolving grade pulp. The most suitable cellulase dose for reactivity improvement with lowering of viscosity was 0.25 U/g o.d. pulp. With increases in enzyme dose, alkali solubilities (S10 and S18) of dissolving pulp showed continuous increment, while alpha-cellulose of pulp showed reduction due to chain scission of long cellulose fiber fraction.

Keywords

Dissolving pulp Crude cellulase Reactivity Viscose Alkali solubility Bacillus subtilis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the Director of the Avantha Centre for Industrial Research & Development, Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, India, for providing the facilities to complete this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Annergren G, Backlund A, Richter J, Rydholm S (1965) Continuous prehydrolysis-kraft cooking. Tappi J 48:52–56Google Scholar
  2. Bailey MJ, Biely P, Poutanen K (1992) Interlaboratory testing of methods for assay of xylanase activity. J Biotechnol 23:257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bajpai P (2012) Production of dissolving grade pulp: biotechnology for pulp and paper processing. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhardwaj NK, Dang VQ, Nguyen KL (2006) Determination of carboxyl content in high yield kraft pulps using photoacoustic rapid-scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Anal Chem 78:6818–6825.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac0605952 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brunecky R, Alahuhta M, Xu Q, Donohoe BS, Crowley MF, Kataeva IA, Yang S, Resch MG, Adams MWW, Lunin VV, Himmel ME, Bomble YJ (2013) Revealing Nature’s cellulase diversity: the digestion mechanism of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii CelA. Science 342(6165):1513–1516.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1244273 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christoffersson KE, Sjostrom M, Edlund U, Lindgren A, Dolk M (2002) Reactivity of dissolving pulp: characterisation using chemical properties, NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. Cellulose 9(2):159–170.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020108125490 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ciolacu D, Ciolacu F, Popa VI (2011) Amorphous cellulose: structure and characterization. Cellulose Chem Technol 45(1–2):13–21Google Scholar
  8. Duan C, Verma SK, Li J, Ma X, Ni Y (2016) Combination of mechanical, alkaline and enzymatic treatments to upgrade paper-grade pulp to dissolving pulp with high reactivity. Biores Technol 200:458–463.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.10.067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Engström AC, Ek M, Henriksson G (2006) Improved accessibility and reactivity of dissolving pulp for the viscose process: pretreatment with monocomponent endoglucanase. Biomacromol 7(6):2027–2031.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bm0509725 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Filpponen I, Argyropoulos DS (2008) Determination of cellulose reactivity by using phosphitylation and quantitative 31P NMR spectroscopy. Ind Eng Chem Res 47:8906–8910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fock W (1959) A modified method for determining the reactivity of viscose-grade dissolving pulps. Das Papier 13:92–95Google Scholar
  12. Gehmayr V, Sixta H (2012) Pulp properties and their influence on enzymatic degradability. Biomacromol 13:645–651.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bm201784u CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gehmayr V, Schild G, Sixta H (2011) A precise study on the feasibility of enzyme treatments of a kraft pulp viscose application. Cellulose 18:479–491.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-010-9483-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Henriksson G, Christiernin M, Agnemo R (2005) Monocomponent endoglucanase treatment increases the reactivity of softwood sulphite dissolving pulp. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 32(5):211–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ibarra D, Köpcke V, Ek M (2010) Behaviour of different monocomponent endoglucanases on the accessibility and reactivity of dissolving-grade pulps for viscose process. Enzyme Microb Technol 47(7):355–362.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2010.07.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jackson LS, Heitmann JA, Joyce TW (1998) Production of dissolving pulp from recovered paper using enzymes. Tappi J 81:171–178Google Scholar
  17. Kaur P, Bhardwaj NK, Sharma J (2016a) Application of microbial enzymes in dissolving pulp production. In: Shukla P (ed) Frontier discoveries and innovations in interdisciplinary microbiology. Springer, New York, pp 133–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaur P, Bhardwaj NK, Sharma J (2016b) Pretreatment with xylanase and its significance in hemicellulose removal from mixed hardwood kraft pulp as a process step for viscose. Carbohydr Polym 145:95–102.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.03.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaur P, Bhardwaj NK, Sharma J (2017) Pentosan reduction from mixed hardwood kraft pulp with alkali treatment and its statistical optimization. Lignocellulose 6(1):23–35Google Scholar
  20. Köpcke V (2010) Conversion of wood and non-wood paper-grade pulps to dissolving-grade pulps. Ph.D. Dissertation, Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm (KTH), SwedenGoogle Scholar
  21. Kvarnlöf N (2007) Activation of dissolving pulps prior to viscose preparation, Ph.D. Dissertation, Karlstad UniversityGoogle Scholar
  22. Kvarnlöf N, Germgård U, Jönsson L, Söderlund CA (2007) Optimization of the enzymatic activation of a dissolving pulp before viscose manufacture. Tappi J 6(6):14–19Google Scholar
  23. Leschinsky M, Zuckerstätter G, Weber HK, Patt R, Sixta H (2008a) Effect of autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus globulus wood on lignin structure, part 2: influence of autohydrolysis intensity. Holzforschung 62:653–658.  https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2008.133 Google Scholar
  24. Miao Q, Chen L, Huang L, Tian C, Zheng L, Ni Y (2014) A process for enhancing the accessibility and reactivity of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp for viscose rayon production by cellulase treatment. Bioresour Technol 154:109–113.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.12.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Miao Q, Tian C, Chen L, Huang L, Zheng L, Ni Y (2015) Combined mechanical and enzymatic treatments for improving the Fock reactivity of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp. Cellulose 22:803–809.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0495-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rahkamo L, Viikari L, Buchert J, Paakkari T, Suortti T (1998) Enzymatic and alkaline treatments of hardwood dissolving pulp. Cellulose 5:79–88  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009268713757 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Roffael E (1988) Study on reactivity of differently prepared viscose pulps. Holzforschung 42(2):135–136.  https://doi.org/10.1515/hfsg.1988.42.2.135 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sixta H (2006) Pulp properties and applications. In: Sixta H (ed) Handbook of pulp. Wiley, Weinheim, pp 1009–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sixta H, Harms H, Dapia S, Parajo JC, Puls J, Saake B, Fink HP, Roder T (2004) Evaluation of new organosolv dissolving pulps. Part I: preparation, analytical characterization and viscose processability. Cellulose 11(1):73–83.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:CELL.0000014767.47330.90 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sixta H, Iakovlev M, Testova L, Roselli A, Hummel M, Borrega M, Heiningen A, Froschauer C, Schottenberger H (2013) Novel concepts of dissolving pulp production. Cellulose 20:1547–1561.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-013-9943-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Strunk P (2012) Characterization of cellulose pulps and the influence of their properties on the process and production of viscose and cellulose ethers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Umeå University, UmeåGoogle Scholar
  32. TAPPI T203 cm-99 (2009) Alpha-, beta- and gamma-cellulose in pulp, TAPPI Press, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  33. TAPPI T218 sp 11 (2011) Forming handsheets for reflectance testing of pulp (Buchner funnel procedure). TAPPI Press, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  34. TAPPI T230 om-08 (2013) Viscosity of pulp (capillary viscometer method). TAPPI Press, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  35. TAPPI T235 cm-09 (2009) Alkali solubility of pulp at 25 °C. TAPPI Press, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  36. Tian C, Zheng L, Miao Q, Nash C, Cao C, Ni Y (2013) Improvement in the Fock test for determining the reactivity of dissolving pulp. Tappi J 12(11):19–24Google Scholar
  37. Wang H, Pang B, Wu K, Kong F, Li B, Mu X (2014) Two stages of treatments for upgrading bleached softwood paper grade pulp to dissolving pulp for viscose production. Biochem Eng J 82:183–187.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2013.11.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wizani W, Krotscheck A, Schuster J, Lackner K (1994) Herstellung von Viskosezellstoffen. Voestalpine Industrieanlagen-GmbH, Lenzing-Aktiengesellschaft. Germany Patent PCT/AT93/00183Google Scholar
  39. Wollboldt RP, Zuckerstätter G, Weber HK, Larsson PT, Sixta H (2010) Accessibility, reactivity and supramolecular structure of E. globulus pulps with reduced xylan content. Wood Sci Technol 44:533–546.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00226-010-0370-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhang YHP, Lynd LR (2004) Toward an aggregated understanding of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: noncomplexed cellulase system. Biotechnol Bioeng 88(7):797–824.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.20282 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chakarvati Sango
    • 1
  • Prabhjot Kaur
    • 2
  • Nishi K. Bhardwaj
    • 2
  • Jitender Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyKurukshetra UniversityKurukshetraIndia
  2. 2.Avantha Centre for Industrial Research and DevelopmentYamuna NagarIndia

Personalised recommendations