3 Biotech

, 8:215 | Cite as

A combined pathway of organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis for an efficient large-scale propagation in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Mejhoul

  • Mouaad Amine MazriEmail author
  • Reda Meziani
  • Ilham Belkoura
  • Boutaïna Mokhless
  • Souad Nour
Original Article


An efficient regeneration system via a combined pathway of organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was developed for date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Mejhoul. Adventitious buds were obtained from shoot-tip explants with a frequency of 53.3% after 9 months of culture: 6 months on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS/2) medium containing 14.2 µM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 13.4 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.5 µM 6-(dimethylallylamino) purine (2iP), and 3 months on MS/2 medium supplemented with 1.1 µM IAA, 1.1 µM NAA, 0.5 µM 2iP, 2.2 µM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.4 µM kinetin. Adventitious bud segments were used as explants to induce somatic embryogenesis, and the effects of different concentrations (22.5, 45, 90, 225 or 450 µM) of 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid (dicamba) and 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) were evaluated. The optimal medium for somatic embryogenesis induction was MS medium supplemented with 45 µM picloram and 5 µM 2iP, in which the somatic embryogenesis rate was 70%. For somatic embryo maturation, the effects of sorbitol, mannitol, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and abscisic acid (ABA) were tested. The highest maturation rate (88.6 mature somatic embryos per 100 mg fresh weight callus) was observed on liquid MS medium supplemented with 20 g L−1 PEG. Subsequent somatic embryo germination was achieved with up to 52.0% in MS medium containing 2.5 µM NAA and 2.5 µM BA. The regenerated plantlets were transferred to the glasshouse where 76.0% of them survived.


Organogenesis Phoenix dactylifera L. Regeneration Somatic embryogenesis 



6-(Dimethylallylamino) purine


Abscisic acid




Fresh weight


Indole-3-acetic acid


Murashige and Skoog


1-Naphthaleneacetic acid


2-Naphthoxyacetic acid


Polyethylene glycol


Plant growth regulator



Part of this work was financed by the Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (CNRST, Morocco) through the PPR2 program (Research Project Ref.: PPR2/2016/36).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We declare that we have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mouaad Amine Mazri
    • 1
    Email author
  • Reda Meziani
    • 2
  • Ilham Belkoura
    • 3
  • Boutaïna Mokhless
    • 3
  • Souad Nour
    • 4
  1. 1.Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, CRRA-Marrakech, UR Agro-Biotechnologie, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie VégétaleMarrakechMorocco
  2. 2.Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, CRRA-Errachidia, UR Systèmes Oasiens, Laboratoire National de Culture des Tissus du Palmier DattierErrachidiaMorocco
  3. 3.Ecole Nationale d’Agriculture, Département des Sciences de Base, Laboratoire de Culture In VitroMeknesMorocco
  4. 4.Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, CRRA-Marrakech, UR Protection des PlantesMarrakechMorocco

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