3 Biotech

, 8:25 | Cite as

Differential levels of metabolites and enzymes related to aroma formation in aromatic indica rice varieties: comparison with non-aromatic varieties

  • Puja Ghosh
  • Aryadeep RoychoudhuryEmail author
Original Article


Accounting for aroma production in different aromatic indica rice varieties based on variations in the levels of concerned metabolites and enzymes is poorly explored. The present investigation was, therefore, focused on unraveling the differential levels of metabolites and activities of enzymes related to aroma formation in eleven indigenous aromatic rice varieties, as compared with four non-aromatic varieties. The levels of metabolites such as proline (Pro) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), and the activity of related enzymes such as proline dehydrogenase (PDH), Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), and ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) were comparatively higher in the aromatic varieties, with Kalonunia and Tulaipanji registering the highest Pro, Kalonunia the highest P5C content, Gobindobhog with the highest PDH activity, Gobindobhog and Tulaipanji with the highest P5CS, and Pusa Basmati-1 with the highest OAT activity. The levels of putrescine (Put) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were comparatively lower in aromatic varieties, with concomitant higher diamine oxidase (DAO) activity, especially in the varieties Gobindobhog and Tulaipanji. The betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (BADH2) enzyme activity was remarkably lesser in aromatic varieties, especially Radhunipagal and Gobindobhog. Though the metabolites such as glycine–betaine and higher polyamines such as spermidine and spermine showed no specific trend with respect to their quantitative level in either aromatic or non-aromatic varieties, they were notably lower in the aromatic varieties such as Gobindobhog, Kalonunia, and Tulaipanji, indicating a possibility of their involvement in aroma formation. Therefore, the levels of metabolites such as Pro, P5C and methylglyoxal (MG), and the activity of enzymes such as PDH, P5CS, OAT, and DAO were comparatively higher in the aromatic rice varieties than the non-aromatic ones, whereas the levels of Put, GABA, and BADH2 were lower. Overall, the present study showed that there exist variations in the accumulations of such metabolites as well as differential activity of enzymes controlling their production, which altogether regulate generation of aroma in aromatic varieties.


Aromatic rice Betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 Enzyme activity Metabolite level 



Financial assistance from Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Government of India, through the research Grant [38(1387)/14/EMR-II] to Dr. Aryadeep Roychoudhury is gratefully acknowledged. The authors would also like to acknowledge Chinsurah Rice Research Station, West Bengal, and Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswa Vidyalaya (BCKV), West Bengal, for providing the seeds of all the aromatic as well as non-aromatic rice varieties used in this investigation. The authors also acknowledge the infrastructural facilities received from the BOOST Grant (335/WBBDC/IP-2/2013) of the Department of Biotechnology, Government of West Bengal.

Author contributions

The corresponding author Aryadeep Roychoudhury designed and analyzed all the experimental results and drafted the final manuscript. Puja Ghosh performed all the experimental works and generated data.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest in publishing the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologySt. Xavier’s College (Autonomous)KolkataIndia

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