Arthropods are associated with various microorganisms which confer benefits to their hosts. Recently, research has been conducted on bacterial communities of insects to provide an insight into the potential interactions of the symbiotic bacteria and their hosts. Spiders are interesting to study as they are perceived to be natural enemies of pests. The effect of endosymbionts on spiders has been reported, but little is known about the overall bacterial communities present in spiders. Here, we report on the characterization of bacterial communities present in the whole body of the spider Marpiss magister using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Our study shows that the most abundant phyla of bacteria included Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. At the genus level, the most abundant genera included Rickettsia, Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, and Cardinium. Besides these dominant endosymbionts, our study also showed the existence of bacteria in the genera Arthrobacter, Novosphingobium, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Aquabacterium and Sphingomonas at an abundance ranging from 0.65 to 0.84%, and the existence of bacterial in genera Lactobacillus, Sphingobium, Methylobacterium, Bradyrhizobium, Propionibacterium, Brevundimonas, Achromobacter, Microbacterium, Corynebacterium, and Flavobacterium at a slightly lower abundance ranging from 0.1 to 0.5%. Therefore, our finding indicates that endosymbionts are not the only microbiota present in the spider M. magister, and other bacterial taxa also exist in its bacterial community.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Fund of China (31401982, 31672317) and the Key Scientific and Technological Projects of Hubei (2016AHB003).
Yueli Yun and Guimin Zhang designed the experiments. Lihua Zhang, Yueli Yun and Yu Peng conducted the experiments and data analysis. Yueli Yun and Lihua Zhang wrote the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest in the publication.
Anjum SI, Shah AH, Aurongzeb M, Kori J, Azim MK, Ansari MJ, Bin L (2017) Characterization of gut bacterial flora of Apis mellifera from North-West Pakistan. Saudi J Biol Sci. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.05.008Google Scholar
Bili M, Cortesero AM, Mougel C, Gauthier JP, Ermel G, Simon JC, Outreman Y, Terrat S, Mahéo F, Poinsot D (2016) Bacterial community diversity harboured by interacting species. PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155392Google Scholar
Bolger AM, Lohse M, Usadel B (2014) Trimmomatic: a flexible trimmer for Illumina sequence data. Bioinformatics 30:2114–2120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brownlie JC, Cass BN, Riegler M, Witsenburg JJ, Iturbe-Ormaetxe I, McGraw EA, O’Neill SL (2009) Evidence for metabolic provisioning by a common invertebrate endosymbiont, Wolbachia pipientis, during periods of nutritional stress. PLoS Pathog. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000368Google Scholar
Caporaso JG, Lauber CL, Walters WA et al (2012) Ultra-high-throughput microbial community analysis on the Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq platforms. ISME J 6:1621–1624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cole JR, Wang Q, Cardenas E, Fish J, Chai B, Farris RJ, Kulam-Syed-Mohideen AS, McGarrell DM, Marsh T, Garrity GM, Tiedje JM (2009) The ribosomal database project: improved alignments and new tools for rRNA analysis. Nucleic Acids Res 37:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duron O, Hurst GDD, Hornett EA, Josling JA, Engelstädter J (2008) High incidence of the maternally inherited bacterium Cardinium in spiders. Mol Ecol 17:1427–1437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edgar RC (2010) Search and clustering orders of magnitude faster than BLAST. Bioinformatics 26:2460–2461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edgar RC, Haas BJ, Clemente JC, Quince C, Knight R (2011) UCHIME improves sensitivity and speed of chimera detection. Bioinformatics 27:2194–2200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards RL, Edwards EH, Edwards AD (2003) Observations of Theotima minutissimus (Araneae; Ochyroceratidae), a parthenogenetic spider. J Arachnol 31:274–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engel P, Moran NA (2013) The gut microbiota of insects—diversity in structure and function. FEMS Microbiol Rev 37:699–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodacre SL, Martin OY, Thomas CFG, Hewitt GM (2006) Wolbachia and other endosymbiont infections in spiders. Mol Ecol 15:517–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gotoh T, Noda H, Ito S (2007) Cardinium symbionts cause cytoplasmic incompatibility in spider mites. Heredity 98:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gupta AK, Rastogi G, Nayduch D, Sawant SS, Bhonde RR, Shouche YS (2014) Molecular phylogenetic profiling of gut-associated bacteria in larvae and adults of flesh flies. Med Vet Entomol 28:345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Himler AG, Adachi-Hagimori T, Bergen JE, Kozuch A, Kelly SE, Tabashnik BE, Chiel E, Duckworth VE, Dennehy TJ, Zchori-Fein E, Hunter MS (2011) Rapid spread of a bacterial symbiont in an invasive whitefly is driven by fitness benefits and female bias. Science 332:254–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kozich JJ, Westcott SL, Baxter NT, Highlander SK, Schloss PD (2013) Development of a dual-index sequencing strategy and curation pipeline for analyzing amplicon sequence data on the MiSeq Illumina sequencing platform. Appl Environ Microbiol 79:5112–5120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Magoč T, Salzberg SL (2011) FLASH: fast length adjustment of short reads to improve genome assemblies. Bioinformatics 27:2957–2963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin OY, Goodacre SL (2009) Widespread infections by the bacterial endosymbiont Cardinium in arachnids. J Arachnol 37:106–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masta SE, Maddison WP (2002) Sexual selection driving diversification in jumping spiders. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:4442–4447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Monteiro CC, Villegas LEM, Campolina TB, Pires AC, Miranda JC, Pimenta PF, Secundino NF (2016) Bacterial diversity of the American sand fly Lutzomyia intermedia using high-throughput metagenomic sequencing. Parasit Vectors 9:480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quast C, Pruesse E, Yilmaz P, Gerken J, Schweer T, Yarza P, Peplies J, Glöckner FO (2013) The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: improved data processing and web-based tools. Nucleic Acids Res 41:590–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Snyman M, Gupta AK, Bezuidenhout CC, Claassens S, Van den Berg J (2016) Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). World J Microbiol Biotechnol 32:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar