Experimental study of viscosity characteristics of graphite/engine oil (5 W-40) nanofluids

  • Xichen Hu
  • Deshun YinEmail author
  • Jingpeng Xie
  • Xuan Chen
  • Chunyu Bai
Original Article


Viscosity characteristics of graphite/engine oil nanofluids is experimentally studied by the present work. Factors of temperature, particle concentration, and shear rate were investigated with ranges of 5–45 °C, 1–5.5 vol% and 17–5333 s−1, respectively. Results reveal that addition of graphite nanoparticles does not perform much influence on the viscosity of base oil, which is unusual but indicates graphite as a promising nanoparticle addition. Besides, a maximum increase of 593% of viscosity was observed when decreasing temperature from 45 to 5 °C. From the results of ANOVA analysis, it showed the dominant effect of temperature which occupies more than 97% contribution to viscosity, overshadowing the effect of other factors. What’s more, a time-dependent behavior of viscosity measurement was observed in the condition of low temperature and high shear rate. Test (background) temperature is supposedly attributed to such phenomenon. In the lower range of shear rate (17–68 s−1), nanofluids behaved as Newtonian fluid, while in the higher range of shear rate (667–3333 s−1) they performed as non-Newtonian fluid. Besides, using a power law model, simulation results indicate that particle volume fraction and temperature have little effect on power law index, but increase in temperature resulted in evident decline of consistency index.


Nanofluids Viscosity Graphite–engine oil Time-dependent measurement Temperature 

List of symbols



Temperature (°C)


Consistency index


Power law index


Shear stress (Pa)


Apparent viscosity

Greek symbol

\(\dot{\gamma }\)

Shear rate (1/s)


Dynamic viscosity of nanofluid (cP)


Particle volume fraction








This work must thank to the following financial support by National Natural Science Fund (No. 11872173) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Project No. 2019B65314) and Graduate student scientific research innovation projects in Jiangsu Province (Project No. SJKY19-0432).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

we declare that we have no financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that can inappropriately influence our work, there is no professional or other personal interest of any nature or kind in any product, service and/or company that could be construed as influencing the position presented in, or the review of, the manuscript entitled, “Experimental study of viscosity characteristics of graphite/engine oil (5 W-40) nanofluids”.

Supplementary material

13204_2019_1240_MOESM1_ESM.docx (68 kb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 68 kb)


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Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xichen Hu
    • 1
  • Deshun Yin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jingpeng Xie
    • 1
  • Xuan Chen
    • 1
  • Chunyu Bai
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Mechanics and MaterialsHohai UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China

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