Effect of gold nanoparticles on transmittance and conductance of graphene oxide thin films and efficiency of perovskite solar cells

  • Muhammad Jawad
  • Abdul Faheem Khan
  • Amir Waseem
  • Afzal Hussain Kamboh
  • Muhammad Mohsin
  • Sohail Anjum Shahzad
  • Sajid Hussain Shah
  • Sanjay MathurEmail author
  • Ahson Jabbar ShaikhEmail author
Original Article


The structural and optoelectronic properties of graphene oxide (GO) bulk material were studied, and conductance and transmittance of GO thin films in absence and presence of AuNPs were optimized for further applications. GO with 0.25 mg/mL and AuNPs (0.5 mL) on GO thin films (0.25 mg/mL) were observed to have highest transmittance of 75% and 72%, respectively, and highest conductance of 7.9 × 103 S and 8.2 × 103 S, respectively. Further, these thin films were utilized as a hole transport layer (HTL) for a prototype inverted perovskite solar cell structure. GO and AuNPs/GO deposited on FTO glass show efficiency of 1.35% and 1.25%, respectively. This decrease in efficiency is associated with the deteriorated crystalline structure of perovskite in the presence of AuNPs and similar HOMO level of AuNPs as of GO, which competes hole transfer.


Graphene oxide AuNPs Thin films Perovskite solar cells Hole transport layer Electron transport layer 



The research described in this paper was financially supported by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan under National Research Program for Universities with reference no 20-3369/R&D/HEC/14/978 and by DAAD under the funding program of Research Stays for University Academics and Scientists, 2018 with ID: 57378441 and personal ref. no.: 91686952, awarded to Dr. AJ Shaikh. We are also thankful to Dr. Asad Muhammad Khan for the photoluminescence measurement of GO.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13204_2019_1134_MOESM1_ESM.docx (411 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 410 kb)


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Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryCOMSATS University IslamabadAbbottabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringInstitute of Space TechnologyIslamabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryQuaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan
  4. 4.Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET)IslamabadPakistan
  5. 5.Department of Environmental SciencesCOMSATS University IslamabadAbbottabadPakistan
  6. 6.Institute of Inorganic ChemistryUniversity of CologneCologneGermany

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