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Exploring the impact of the Pb2+ substitution by Cd2+ on the structural and morphological properties of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite

  • Rajan Kumar Singh
  • Ranveer KumarEmail author
  • Neha Jain
  • Mei-Tsan Kuo
  • Chandrama Prakash Upadhyaya
  • Jai Singh
Original Article
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

Replacing the metal atoms in an organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite is of great significance to explore the low-toxic lead-free solar cells and other opto-electronic devices. In this work, we report the substitution of lead by 10% cadmium in CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid perovskite samples synthesized in powder and thin-film forms. We have characterized their structural, morphological, optical and thermal properties using XRD, HR-TEM, SEM, DR UV–Vis spectroscopy and STA. The detailed structural analysis made through XRD, TEM and Rietveld refinement insights the structural phase transformation from tetragonal to cubic structure due to the incorporation of cadmium at lead sites. Controlled size and crystallinity are two crucial factors for solution which processed hybrid perovskite solar cells for device formation. Morphological studies reveal the improved crystallinity and an enhancement in grains sizes (> 8–9 times of pristine perovskite) with cadmium doping in pure perovskite structure. The DR UV–Vis spectroscopy shows the substantial reduction in the optical band gap and shifting of absorbance spectra towards NIR regions. These results open up the door for new perspicacity of transition metals to culminate lead-free designing of novel protective materials with advanced photovoltaic and photoelectric properties.

Keywords

Halide perovskite Crystallinity Grain size Pinhole Low toxic 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to Sophisticated Instrument Laboratory of the University for providing various characterization facilities. One of the authors (Rajan) acknowledges the Senior Research Fellowship provided by University Grants Commission (UGC), Govt. of India. Ranveer Kumar acknowledge to DST PURSE Phase 2 for financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13204_2019_1021_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.3 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1336 KB)

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Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajan Kumar Singh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ranveer Kumar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Neha Jain
    • 1
  • Mei-Tsan Kuo
    • 2
  • Chandrama Prakash Upadhyaya
    • 3
  • Jai Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsDr. Harisingh Gour Central UniversitySagarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan, ROC
  3. 3.Laboratory of Plant Molecular Biology, Department of BiotechnologyDr. Harisingh Gour Central UniversitySagarIndia

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