Formation of tiny particles and their extended shapes: origin of physics and chemistry of materials

  • Mubarak Ali
  • I.-Nan Lin
Original Article


Tiny-sized particles under the scheme of monolayer assembly, comprising gold atoms, developed at a different processing time in a pulse-based process. For a different processing time, atoms bind into different tiny particles under the placing packets of nanoshape energy where they elongate as per arrangement and when in one-dimensional arrays, they convert into structures of smooth elements. For different processing time and where tiny particles possess triangular shape, they pack to develop extended shapes where development rate of an anisotropic particle is not more than milliseconds. Increasing the processing time of solution upto certain duration increases the number of developing tiny particles in a triangular-shape, so, their extended shapes also. Uniformly adjacent orientation of electrons in atoms of tiny-shaped particle is because of exerting uniform surface force along their opposite poles as per gained potential energy where stretching of their clamped energy knots remains orientation-based. At a different processing time, inter-spacing distance of spotted intensity spots in selective area photons reflection patterns of particles remains the same as for the case of the structures of smooth elements visualized through transmission microscope high-resolution images. When the forceful coinciding of two parallel structures of smooth elements occurs, they bind into single element structure (of smooth element) by overlying a bit on the inner sides, thus, giving it double width where certain filled-state electrons and unfilled energy knots (belonging to sides of elongated atoms of parallel structures of smooth elements) coordinate to adhere. This study discusses the formation (development) of tiny particles (tiny-sized particles) followed by their extended shapes (large-sized particles) at different processing time of gold solution while employing a pulse-based electron–photon solution-interface process where they become the origin of physics and chemistry of materials by discussing many commonly known phenomena and processes, so, opening the alternative routes to design materials and explore science.


Process time Tiny particles Particles Electron dynamics Diffusion Electricity and magnetism Force–energy 



We thank National Science Council now Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (R.O.C.) for awarding postdoctorship: NSC-102-2811-M-032-008 (August 2013- July 2014) and appreciate the support of Dr. Kamatchi Jothiramalingam Sankaran, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (R.O.C.) for helping in materials’ microscopy. Dr. Ali also acknowledges support of Dr. M. Ashraf Atta while writing article.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsCOMSATS University IslamabadIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsTamkang UniversityNew Taipei CityTaiwan

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