Applied Nanoscience

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 305–315 | Cite as

Tribological performance of paraffin grease with silica nanoparticles as an additive

  • Sooraj Singh Rawat
  • A. P. HarshaEmail author
  • Agarwal Pratik Deepak
Original Article


The present study deals to evaluate the physical properties, frictional behavior, and extreme pressure performance of paraffin grease dispersed with silica (SiO2) nanoparticles. The paraffin grease was developed using paraffin oil as a base oil and 12-lithium hydroxy stearate was chosen as a thickener. The concentration of thickener was fixed at 14% w/w. The SiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by the modified sol–gel method and dispersed in paraffin grease by the in-situ method. The various analytical tools were used to ensure the formulation of SiO2 nanoparticles. The extreme pressure and frictional characteristics of SiO2 doped in paraffin grease were studied in four-ball tester as per ASTM D2596 and D2266, respectively. The physical properties of paraffin greases such as cone penetration, drop point, water washout, leakage tendency, and evaporation loss were also evaluated according to ASTM standards. The experimental results showed that the addition of SiO2 nanoparticles in paraffin grease enhances its tribological performances as compared to pure paraffin grease. The maximum reduction in coefficient of friction and mean wear volume was ~ 20% and ~ 42% at a concentration of 0.03 and 0.05% w/w, respectively.


Paraffin grease Nanoparticles Friction Wear scar diameter Sol–gel method. 



The authors are thankful to the Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT (BHU), Varanasi, and Central Instrument facility (CIF), IIT (BHU) for characterization of the samples. We also thank the Chemical Science Division, CSIR Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun, India for the physical characterization of grease.


  1. Adhvaryu A, Sung C, Erhan SZ (2005) Fatty acids and antioxidant effects on grease microstructures. Ind Crops Prod 21:85–291. Google Scholar
  2. Chang H, Lan CW, Chen CH, Kao MJ, Guo JB (2014) Anti-wear and friction properties of nanoparticles as additives in the lithium grease. Int J Precis Eng Manuf. 15(10):2059–2063. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen J (2010) Tribological properties of polytetrafluoroethylene, nano-titanium dioxide, and nano-silicon dioxide as additives in mixed oil-based titanium complex grease. Tribol Lett 38:217–224. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dai W, Kheireddin B, Gao H, Liang H (2016) Roles of nanoparticles in oil lubrication. Tribol Int 102:88–98. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Delgado MA, Sánchez MC, Valencia C, Franco JM, Gallegos C (2005) Relationship among microstructure, rheology and processing of a lithium lubricating grease. Chem Eng Res Des 83:1085–1092. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ge X, Xia Y, Cao Z (2015) Tribological properties and insulation effect of nanometer TiO2 and nanometer SiO2 as additives in grease. Tribol Int 92:454–461. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gupta RN, Harsha AP (2017) Antiwear and extreme pressure performance of castor oil with nano-additives. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part J J Eng Tribol 232(9):1055–1067. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gupta RN, Harsha AP (2018) Tribological evaluation of calcium-copper-titanate/cerium oxide-based nanolubricants in sliding contact. Lubr Sci 30:175–187. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jafarzadeh M, Rahman IA, Sipaut CS (2009) Synthesis of silica nanoparticles by modified sol-gel process: the effect of mixing modes of the reactants and drying techniques. J Sol Gel Sci Technol 50:328–336. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jiao D, Zheng S, Wang Y, Guan R, Cao B (2011) The tribology properties of alumina/silica composite nanoparticles as lubricant additives. Appl Surf Sci 257:5720–5725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kashyap A, Harsha AP (2016) Tribological studies on chemically modified rapeseed oil with CuO and CeO2 nanoparticles. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part J J Eng Tribol 230(12):1562–1571. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim D, Archer L (2011) Nanoscale organic–inorganic hybrid lubricants. Langmuir 27:3083–3094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee K, Hwang Y, Cheong S, Choi Y, Kwon L, Lee J, Kim SH (2009) Understanding the role of nanoparticles in nano-oil lubrication. Tribol Lett 35:127–131. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li Z, Zhu Y (2003) Surface-modification of SiO2 nanoparticles with oleic acid. Appl Surf Sci 211:315–320. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li X, Cao Z, Zhang Z, Dang H (2006) Surface-modification in situ of nano-SiO2 and its structure and tribological properties. Appl Surf Sci 252:7856–7861. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li W, Zheng S, Cao B, Ma S (2011) Friction and wear properties of ZrO2/SiO2 composite nanoparticles. J Nanopart Res 13:2129–2137. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lima SPBD, Vasconcelos RPD, Paiva OA, Cordeiro GC, Chaves MRDM, Toledo Filho RD, Fairbairn EDMR (2011) Production of silica gel from residual rice husk ash. Química Nova 34(1):71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu G, Li X, Qin B, Xing D, Guo Y, Fan R (2004) Investigation of the mending effect and mechanism of copper nano-particles on a tribologically stressed surface. Tribol Lett 17(4):961–966. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Peng DX, Kang Y, Hwang RM, Shyr SS, Chang YP (2009) Tribological properties of diamond and SiO2 nanoparticles added in paraffin. Tribol Int 42:911–917. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Peng DX, Chen CH, kang Y, Chang YP, Chang SY (2010) Size effects of SiO2 nanoparticles as oil additives on tribology of lubricant. Ind Lubr Tribol 62(2):111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rahman IA, Vejayakumaran P, Sipaut CS, Ismail J, Bakar MA, Adnan R, Chee CK (2007) An optimized sol–gel synthesis of stable primary equivalent silica particles. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 294:102–110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sánchez R, Franco JM, Delgado MA, Valencia C, Gallegos C (2011) Thermal and mechanical characterization of cellulosic derivatives-based oleogels potentially applicable as bio-lubricating greases: Influence of ethyl cellulose molecular weight. Carbohydr Polym 83:151–158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sui T, Song B, Zhang F, Yang Q (2015a) Effects of functional groups on the tribological properties of hairy silica nanoparticles as an additive to polyalphaolefin. RSC Adv 16(1):393–402. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sui T, Baoyu S, Zhang F, Yang Q (2015b) Effect of particle size and ligand on the tribological properties of amino functionalized hairy silica nanoparticles as an additive to polyalphaolefin. J Nanomater 16:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sui T, Song B, Wen YH, Zhang F (2016) Bifunctional hairy silica nanoparticles as high-performance additives for lubricant. Sci Rep 6:1–9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vansant EF, Voort PVD, Vrancken KC (1995) Characterization and chemical modification of the silica surface. Elseveir Amsterdam Vol. 93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang L, Zhang M, Wang X, Liu W (2008) The preparation of CeF3 nanocluster capped with oleic acid by extraction method and application to lithium grease. Mater Res Bull 43:2220–2227. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang X, Shen Z, Sang T, Cheng X, Li M, Chen L, Wang Z (2010) Preparation of spherical silica particles by Stöber process with high concentration of tetra-ethyl-orthosilicate. J Colloid Interface Sci 341:23–29. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xie H, Jiang B, He J, Xia X, Pan F (2016) Lubrication performance of MoS2 and SiO2 nanoparticles as lubricant additives in magnesium alloy-steel contacts. Tribol Int 93:63–70. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang C, Zhang S, Yu L, Zhang Z, Wu Z, Zhang P (2012) Preparation and tribological properties of water-soluble copper/silica nanocomposite as a water-based lubricant additive. Appl Surf Sci 259:824–830. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sooraj Singh Rawat
    • 1
  • A. P. Harsha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Agarwal Pratik Deepak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University)VaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations