Advertisement

Assessment of the role of silver nanoparticles in reducing poultry mortality, risk and economic benefits

  • Indrajeet Kumar
  • Jayanta Bhattacharya
Original Article
  • 8 Downloads

Abstract

The paper reports a study conducted in two poultry farms of West Medinipur district, West Bengal, India with a target to reduce the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the poultry drinking water by the application of a formulation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The lab-synthesized AgNPs had an average size of 15 nm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs for the farm water was considered 50 mg/L. Two poultry farms A and B were selected as case and control groups, respectively, for sampling. The study was designed with three replications. In the case group, the supplied water, generally used for the poultry in both the cases, was dosed with synthesized AgNPs throughout the study period, while in the control group the untreated water was supplied for drinking by the poultry. The study also included the impact of AgNP dose on factors of standard poultry growth performance like mortality count, feed intake (FI), body weight (BW) and food conversion ratio (FCR). The observations revealed that, compared to the control, in the case group the percentage mortality rate was reduced significantly (p < 0.05), and FI and BW increased significantly (p < 0.05), but no significant effect, however, was observed on FCR (p > 0.05). The results of average 4.92% mortality of case poultry, compared to the average 14.13% mortality in control, would potentially provide substantial economic benefit to the farmers. Moreover, the consumption risk assessment surmised that a 1.2 µg/g of silver retained on the poultry and hazard quotient (Ag) was 0.34 (< 1) which is considered non-toxic on the poultry, and the poultry is fit for human consumption. A cost–benefit analysis weighs in favour of AgNP use by the farmers to particularly deal with the effects of E. coli.

Keywords

Farm water AgNPs Growth performance Risk assessment Economic analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are deeply grateful to the six reviewers who have thoroughly examined the initial manuscript and suggested a number of major revisions that led to newer experiments and findings. Without their help the manuscript would not have reached the level that it could attain at present. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of fellowship for the first author by the Government of India and experimental facilities provided by Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. The measurement instrumentation support provided by Central Research Facility of IIT Kharagpur is also duly acknowledged. The field testing would not have been possible without the active help of the employees of Zelence Industries Private Limited, a start-up firm under Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Park (STEP), Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Dr. Bidus Das on behalf of Zelence Industries coordinated both the laboratory and field research. The help is duly acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest in this work.

References

  1. Ahmadi F, Rahimi F (2011) The effect of different levels of nano silver on performance and retention of silver in edible tissues of broilers. World Appl Sci J 12:1–4Google Scholar
  2. APHA (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21th edn. American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, American Public Health Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Atiyeh BS, Costagliola M, Hayek SN, Dibo SA (2007) Effect of silver on burn wound infection control and healing: review of the literature. Burns 33:139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Austin LA, Kang B, Yen CW, El-Sayed MA (2011) Nuclear targeted silver nano spheres perturb the cancer cell cycle differently than those of nanogold. Bioconjug Chem 22:2324–2331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banach M, Tymczyna L, Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska A, Pulit-Prociak J (2016) Nanosilverbiocidal properties and their application in disinfection of hatchers in poultry processing plants. Bioinorgan Chem Appl 2016 (5214783):1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bechtel DB, Bulla LA (1976) Electron microscope study of sporulation and parasporal crystal formation in Bacillus thuringiensis. J Bacteriol 127:1472–1481Google Scholar
  7. Borm PJ, Robbins D, Haubold S, Kuhlbusch T, Fissan H, Donaldson K, Schins R, Stone V, Kreyling W, Lademann J, Krutmann J, Warheit D, Oberdorster E (2006) The potential risks of nanomaterials: a review carried out for ECETOC. Particle Fibre Toxicol 3:11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bragg PD, Rainnie DJ (1974) The effect of silver ions on the respiratory chain of Escherichia coli. Can J Microbiol 20:883–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chappell MA, Miller LF, George AJ, Pettway BA, Price CL, Porter BE, Bednar AJ, Seiter JM, Kennedy AJ, Steevens JA (2011) Simultaneous dispersion–dissolution behavior of concentrated silver nanoparticle suspensions in the presence of model organic solutes. Chemosphere 84:1108–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chauke N, Siebrits FK (2012) Evaluation of silver nanoparticles as a possible coccidiostat in broiler production. S Afr J Anim Sci 42:493–497Google Scholar
  11. Choi O, Deng KK, Kim NJ, Ross L Jr, Surampalli RY, Hu Z (2008) The inhibitiory effects of silver nanoparticles, silver ions and silver chloride colloids on microbial growth. Water Res 42:3066–3074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Church DC, Kellems RO (2002) Feed additives. Livest Feeds Feed 179–192Google Scholar
  13. Dibrov P, Dzioba J, Gosink KK, Hase CC (2002) Chemiosmotic mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag+ in Vibrio cholera. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:2668–2670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Do Amaral LA (2004) Drinking water as a risk factor to poultry health. Rev Bras Ciênc Avíc 6: 191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dobias J, Bernier-Latmani R (2013) Silver release from silver nanoparticles in natural waters. Environ Sci Technol 47:4140–4146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dubey RC, Maheshwari DK (2011) Practical microbiology, 6th edn. S. Chand Book, Bhubaneshwar, pp 160–175Google Scholar
  17. Feng QL, Wu J, Chen GQ, Cui FZ, Kim TN, Kim JO (2000) A mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. J Biomed Mater Res 52:662–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fondevila M (2010) Potential use of silver nanoparticles as an additive in animal feeding. Silver nanoparticles. In: Perez DP (ed) InTech. http://www.intechopen.com/books/silver-nanoparticles/potential-use-of-silver-nanoparticles-as-an-additive-inanimal-feeding (ISBN 978-953-307-028-5)
  19. Gangadoo S, Stanley D, Hughes RJ, Moore RJ, Chapman J (2016) Nanoparticles in feed: progress and prospects in poultry research. Trends Food Sci Technol 58:115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gupta A, Maynes M, Silver S (1998) Effects of halides on plasmid-mediated silver resistance in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:5042–5045Google Scholar
  21. Hassan AK, Shahata MA, Refaie EM, Ibrahim RS (2014) Pathogenicity testing and antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pullorum isolates from chicken origin. Int J Vet Sci Med 2:72–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. He GA, Chen R, Lu S, Jiang C, Liu H, Wang C (2015) Dominating role of ionic strength in the sedimentation of nano-TiO2 in aquatic environments. J Nanomater 16:338Google Scholar
  23. Holt CLR (1965) Geology and water resources of portage country, Wisconsin. in: US Geological Survey water-supply paper, p 1796Google Scholar
  24. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) (2017) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency chemical assessment, summary silver; CASRN7440-22-4. https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris/iris_documents/documents/subst/0099_summary.pdf. Accessed 18th Apr 2017
  25. Iravani S, Korbekandi H, Mirmohammadi SV, Zolfaghari B (2014) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles: chemical, physical and biological methods. Res Pharm Sci 9:385–406Google Scholar
  26. Kalab M, Yang AF, Chabot D (2008) Conventional scanning electron microscopy of bacteriaInfocus. Magazine 10:42–61Google Scholar
  27. Kamphues J, Ratert C (2013) The quality of drinking water in poultry production. In: Proceedings of the 19th European symposium on poultry nutrition, Potsdam, 26–29 Aug 2013Google Scholar
  28. Kittler S, Greulich C, Köller M, Epple M (2009) Synthesis of PVP-coated silver nanoparticles and their biological activity towards human mesenchymal stem cells. Mater Wiss Werkst Entwickl Fert Prüf Eig Anwend Tech Werkst 40: 258–264Google Scholar
  29. Korani M, Ghazizadeh E, Korani S, Hami Z, Mohammadi-Bardbori A (2015) Effects of silver nanoparticles on human health. Eur J Nanomed 7:51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kulak E, Ognik K, Stępniowska A, Sembratowicz I (2018) The effect of administration of silver nanoparticles on silver accumulation in tissues and the immune and antioxidant status of chickens. J Anim Feed Sci 27:44–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Loeschner K, Navratilova J, Grombe R, Linsinger TP, Købler C, Mølhave K, Larsen EH (2015) In-house validation of a method for determination of silver nanoparticles in chicken meat based on asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection. Food Chem 181:78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lok CN, Ho CM, Chen R, He QY, Yu WY, Sun H, Tam PKH, Chiu JF, Che CM (2007) Silver nanoparticles: partial oxidation and antibacterial activities. J Biol Inorg Chem 12:527–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Maiti S, Krishna D, Barman G, Ghosh SK, Laha JK (2014) Antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Lycopersicon esculentum extract. J Anal Sci Technol 5:40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Malina D, Sobczak-Kupiec A, Wzorek Z, Kowalski Z (2012) Silver nanoparticles synthesis with different concentrations of polyvinyl pyrrolidone. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 7:1527–1534Google Scholar
  35. Masters GM, Ela WP (2014) Environmental engineering and science, 3rd edn. PHI Learning Private Limited, Delhi, pp 127–166Google Scholar
  36. Mohanty S, Mishra S, Jena P, Jacob B, Sarkar B, Sonawane A (2012) An investigation on the antibacterial, cytotoxic, and antibiofilm efficacy of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 8:916–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morton JF (2007) The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:19680–19685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mulfinger L, Solomon SD, Bahadory M, Jeyarajasingam AV, Rutkowsky SA, Boritz C (2007) Synthesis and study of silver nanoparticles. J Chem Educ 84:322–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nigra AE, Nachman KE, Love DC, Grau-Perez M, Navas-Acien A (2017) Poultry consumption and arsenic exposure in the U.S. population. Environ Health Perspect 125:370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ognik K, Stępniowska A, Kozłowski K (2017) The effect of administration of silver nanoparticles to broiler chickens on estimated intestinal absorption of iron, calcium, and potassium. Livest Sci 200:40–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pal S, Tak YK, Song JM (2007) Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:1712–1720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pal A, Shah S, Devi S (2009) Microwave-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanol as a reducing agent. Mater Chem Phys 114:530–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pineda L, Chwalibog A, Sawosz E, Lauridsen C, Engberg R, Elnif J, Hotowy A, Sawosz F, Gao Y, Ali A, Moghaddam HS (2012) Effect of silver nanoparticles on growth performance, metabolism and microbial profile of broiler chickens. Arch Anim Nutr 66:416–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Powers CM, Badireddy AR, Ryde IT, Seidler FJ, Slotkin TA (2011) Silver nanoparticles compromise neurodevelopment in pc12 cells: critical contributions of silver ion, particle size, coating, and composition. Environ Health Perspect 119:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Radziuk D, Skirtach A, Sukhorukov G, Shchukin D, Möhwald H (2007) Stabilization of silver nanoparticles by polyelectrolytes and poly(ethylene glycol). Macromol Rapid Commun 28:848–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rai M, Yadav A, Gade A (2009) Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechnol Adv 27:76–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Raieszadeh H, Noaman V, Yadegari M (2013) Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structural and functional indicies in broiler chickens treated with silver nanoparticles. Sci World J 2013(931432):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Raji V, Chakraborty M, Parikh PA (2012) Synthesis of starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity. Particle Sci Technol 30:567–577Google Scholar
  49. Sasidhar PVK, Suvedi M (2015) Integrated contract broiler farming: an evaluation case study in India. Feed Futur. https://dev.meas.illinois.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/MEAS-EVAL-2015-Broiler-India-long-Sasidhar-Suvedi-June-2015.pdf
  50. Sawosz F, Pineda L, Hotowy A, Hyttel P, Sawosz E, Szmidt M, Niemiec T, Chwalibog A (2012) Nano-nutrition of chickenembryos. The effect of silver nanoparticles and glutamine on molecular responses, and the morphology of pectoral muscle. Baltic J Comp Clin Syst Biol 2:29–45Google Scholar
  51. Schreurs WJ, Rosenberg H (1982) Effect of silver ions on transport and retention of phosphate by Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 152:7–13Google Scholar
  52. Shao Y, Wu C, Wu T, Chen S, Ding T, Ye X, Hu Y (2018) Green synthesis of sodium alginate–silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity. Int J Biol Macromol 111:1281–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Siswanto IS, Siti S, Agus S (2017) Economic analysis of male broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with salviniamolesta. Int J Poult Sci 16:233–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tymczyna L, Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska A, Drabik A (2007) The effectiveness of various biofiltration substrates in removing bacteria, endotoxins, and dust from ventilation system exhaust from a chicken hatchery. Poult Sci 86:2095–2100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wadhera A, Fung M (2005) Systemic argyria associated with ingestion of colloidal silver. Dermatol Online J 11:12Google Scholar
  56. Wang H, Qiao X, Chen J, Wang X, Ding S (2005) Mechanisms of PVP in the preparation of silver nanoparticles. Mater Chem Phys 94:449–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. West Bengal drinking water sector improvement project (WB DWSIP) with assistance from Asian Development Bank (2017) http://www.wbphed.gov.in/resources/wbdwsip/DWQAP_EAST_MEDINIPUR.pdf. Accessed 4 May 2018
  58. WHO (2017) Guidelines for drinking-water quality: water, sanitation, hygiene and health, 4th edn. Programme on chemical safety providing input on chemical hazards and radiation and environmental health, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  59. Yang X, Gondikas AP, Marinakos SM, Auffan M, Liu J, Hsu-Kim H, Meyer JN (2012) Mechanism of silver nanoparticle toxicity is dependent on dissolved silver and surface coating in Caenorhabditis elegans. Environ Sci Technol 46:1119–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhang YC, Xing R, Hu XY (2004) A green hydrothermal route to copper nanocrystallites. J Cryst Growth 273:280–284.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2004.08.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhang C, Hu Z, Deng B (2016) Silver nanoparticles in aquatic environments Physiochemical behavior and antimicrobial mechanisms. Water Res 88:403–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zimmermann NG (1998) Relationship of drinking water quality and broiler performance on Delmarva. In: Proceedings of the Maryland nutrition conference for feed manufacturers, University of Maryland, College Park, pp 66–76Google Scholar
  63. Zimmermann NG, Douglass L (1998) A survey of drinking water quality and its effects on broiler growth performance on Delmarva. Poult Sci 77:121Google Scholar

Copyright information

© King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mining EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia
  3. 3.Zelence Industries Private LimitedKharagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations