Advertisement

Voltage source converter in a microgrid

  • Bharat Chetry
  • Adriano Carvalho
  • Rui Brito
Original Article
  • 66 Downloads

Abstract

Microgird with higher amount of renewable energy sources interconnected with power electronic devices has many challenges, such as loss of inertia, low short circuit ratio, difficulty in power sharing, problem of storage in an islanded condition, which needs to be handled properly. Among other ones, the power sharing is one of the major problems in a microgrid that leads to the voltage and frequency limits violation and increased losses. This paper demonstrates that the voltage source converter (VSC) can extend its role of interfacing renewable sources to a new role of performing a high dynamic response as a generating unit of the microgrid. A Laplace model of the power converter is presented, which allows to analyze the converter behaviour in supporting the grid. The application of the converter to a weak microgrid is also presented to validate the proper behaviour of the power plant as a generation unit of the microgrid. The approach in controlling the converter operation is based on vector control implemented in a rotating reference frame handling the control variables in the dq domain. The VSC along with its controller is used in this paper to contribute the active and reactive power to stabilize the frequency and the voltage of the grid within the permissible limit.

Keywords

Microgrid Reactive power Renewable sources Thevenin impedance Voltage source converter 

References

  1. Álvarez IJB (2011) Control of distributed generation for grid-connected and intentional islanding operations By Irvin Joel Balaguer Álvarez. Ph.D. Thesis(C):2005–2008, Unpublished, Michigan State University.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2010.2049709
  2. Brito R, Carvalho A, Gericota M (2015) A new three-phase voltage sourced converter laplace model. In: Proceedings—2015 9th international conference on compatibility and power electronics, CPE 2015, pp 160–166.  https://doi.org/10.1109/CPE.2015.7231066
  3. De D, Ramanarayanan V (2010) Decentralized parallel operation of inverters sharing unbalanced and nonlinear loads. IEEE Trans Power Electron 25(12):3015–3025.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2010.2068313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. De Brabandere K, Bolsens B, Van den Keybus J, Woyte A, Driesen J, Belmans R (2007) A voltage and frequency droop control method for parallel inverters. IEEE Trans Power Electron 22(4):1107–1115.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2007.900456 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dehnavi G, Ginn HL (2013) Load sharing among converters in an autonomous microgrid in presence of wind and PV sources. In: 2013 IEEE PES innovative smart grid technologies conference, ISGT 2013, pp 1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ISGT.2013.6497839
  6. Diaz NL, Dragičević T, Vasquez JC, Guerrero JM, Dragi T, Guerrero JM, Member S, Dragičević T, Vasquez JC, Guerrero JM (2014) Intelligent distributed generation and storage units for DC microgrids—a new concept on cooperative control without communications beyond droop control. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 5(5):2476–2485.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2014.2341740 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gouveia C (2014) Experimental validation of microgrids: exploiting the role of plug-in electrical vehicles, active load control and micro-generation units. Ph.D. University of Porto, Portugal, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  8. Guerrero JM, Vasquez JC, Matas J, De Vicuna LG, Castilla M (2011) Hierarchical control of droop-controlled AC and DC microgrids—a general approach toward standardization. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 58(1):158–172.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2010.2066534 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. He J, Li YW, Guerrero JM, Blaabjerg F, Vasquez JC (2013) Microgrid reactive and harmonic power sharing using enhanced virtual impedance. In: Conference proceedings—IEEE applied power electronics conference and exposition—APEC, pp 447–452.  https://doi.org/10.1109/APEC.2013.6520248
  10. Holmes DG, Lipo TA, McGrath BP, Kong WY (2009) Optimized design of stationary frame three phase AC Current regulators. IEEE Trans Power Electron 24(11):2417–2426.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2009.2029548 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Joós G (1995) Performance investigation of a current-controlled voltage-regulated PWM rectifier in rotating and stationary frames. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 42(4):396–401.  https://doi.org/10.1109/41.402479 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Katiraei F, Iravani MR, Lehn PW (2005) Micro-grid autonomous operation during and subsequent to islanding process. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 20(1):248–257.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2004.835051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kroposki B, Lasseter R, Ise T, Morozumi S, Papathanassiou S, Hatziargyriou N (2008) Making microgrids work. IEEE Power Energy Mag 6(3):40–53.  https://doi.org/10.1109/MPE.2008.918718 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lasseter B (2001) Microgrids [distributed power generation]. In: Power engineering society winter meeting, vol 1. IEEE, pp 146–149.  https://doi.org/10.1109/PESW.2001.917020
  15. Li Y, Vilathgamuwa DM, Loh PC (2004) Design, analysis, and real-time testing of a controller for multibus microgrid system. IEEE Trans Power Electron 19(5):1195–1204.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2004.833456 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lim K, Choi J, Jang J, Lee J, Kim J (2013). P+ Multiple Resonant Control for Output Voltage Regulation of Microgrid with Unbalanced and Nonlinear Loads. In: International Power Electronics Conference. IEEE, Hiroshima, pp. 2656–2662. Available at: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6869965. Accessed 7 Aug 2014
  17. Loh PC, Li D, Chai YK, Blaabjerg F (2013) Autonomous control of interlinking converter with energy storage in hybrid AC–DC microgrid. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 49(3):1374–1382.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2013.2252319 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lopes JP, Moreira CL, Madureira AG (2006) Defining control strategies for microgrids islanded operation. IEEE Trans Power Syst 21(2):916–924.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2006.873018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lou F, Lai YM, Tse CK, Loo KH, Luo F, Lai YM, Tse CK, Loo KH (2012) A triple-droop control scheme for inverter-based microgrids. In: IECON 2012—38th annual conference on IEEE industrial electronics society, pp 3368–3375Google Scholar
  20. Meng L (2015) Optimal and distributed. Hierarchical control for optimal and distributed operation of microgrid systems. Aalborg University, AalborgGoogle Scholar
  21. Menniti D, Picardi C, Pinnarelli A, Sgrò D (2008) Power management by grid-connected inverters using a voltage and current control strategy for Microgrid applications. In: SPEEDAM 2008—international symposium on power electronics, electrical drives, automation and motion, pp 1414–1419.  https://doi.org/10.1109/SPEEDHAM.2008.4581283
  22. Niu H, Jiang M, Zhang D, Fletcher J (2014) Autonomous micro-grid operation by employing weak droop control and PQ control. In: 2014 Australasian universities power engineering conference, AUPEC 2014—proceedings (October), pp 1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1109/AUPEC.2014.6966519
  23. Piagi P, Lasseter R (2006) Autonomous control of microgrids. In: IEEE power engineering society general meeting, p 8.  https://doi.org/10.1109/PES.2006.1708993
  24. Shahabi M, Haghifam MR, Mohamadian M, Nabavi-Niaki SA (2009) Dynamic behavior improvement in a microgrid with multiple DG units using a power sharing approach. In: 2009 IEEE Bucharest PowerTech: innovative ideas toward the electrical grid of the future, pp 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1109/PTC.2009.5282145
  25. Vandoorn TL, De Kooning J, Meersman B, Vandevelde L (2013) Voltage-based droop control of renewables to avoid on–off oscillations caused by overvoltages. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 28(2):845–854.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2013.2241793 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wasynczuk O, Sudhoff S, Tran T, Clayton D, Hegner H (1996) A voltage control strategy for current-regulated PWM inverters. IEEE Trans Power Electron 11(1):7–15.  https://doi.org/10.1109/63.484411 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Watson LD, Member S, Kimball JW, Member S (2011) Frequency regulation of a microgrid using solar power. Simulation.  https://doi.org/10.1109/APEC.2011.5744615 Google Scholar
  28. Wei Y, Min C, Matas J, Guerrero JM, Zhao-ming Q (2011) Design and analysis of the droop control method for parallel inverters considering the impact of the complex impedance on the power sharing. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 58(2):576–588.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2010.2046001 Google Scholar
  29. Xuesong Z, Tie G, Youjie M (2015) An overview on microgrid technology. In: 2015 IEEE international conference on mechatronics and automation (ICMA), pp 76–81.  https://doi.org/10.1109/ICMA.2015.7237460
  30. Yun Wei L, Ching-Nan K (2009) An accurate power control strategy for power-electronics-interfaced distributed generation units operating in a low-voltage multibus microgrid. IEEE Trans Power Electron 24(12):2977–2988.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2009.2022828 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zmood DN, Holmes DG (2003) Stationary frame current regulation of PWM inverters with zero steady-state error. IEEE Trans Power Electron 18(3):814–822.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2003.810852 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for Reliability Engineering, Quality and Operations Management (SREQOM), India and The Division of Operation and Maintenance, Lulea University of Technology, Sweden 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.FEUPPortoPortugal
  3. 3.ISEPPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations