Human health risk assessment due to metals in cow’s milk from Singhbhum copper and iron mining areas, India
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The concentration of Al, As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn were determined in the milk collected from the locally rearing cows from the vicinity of copper mining areas of East Singhbhum and iron mining areas of West Singhbhum using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for a risk assessment and source apportionment study. Principal component analysis suggested both natural and anthropogenic activities as causative sources of metals in the milk. The hazard indices ranged from 0.26 to 0.89 with a mean of 0.56 in the iron mining areas and 0.29–1.89 with a mean of 1.17 in the copper mining areas due to ingestion of milk, which indicated that the risk is negligible in the iron mining areas while there is an appreciable risk to the health of consumers of milk in the copper mining areas.
KeywordsMilk Metals Principal component analysis Risk assessment Mining areas
The authors are grateful to Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, for providing the necessary funding for the study under the DST-Young Scientist Scheme (Grant No. YSS/2015/001211). Also authors are thankful to the Director and Water Resource Management Section (NREM), CSIR-Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad for providing the necessary laboratory facilities and other logistic support for the study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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