Advertisement

Emblicanin rich Emblica officinalis extract encapsulated double emulsion: controlled release of bioactive during phagocytosis and in vitro digestion

  • Neha ChaudharyEmail author
  • Latha Sabikhi
  • Shaik Abdul Hussain
Original Article
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

Controlled release of Emblicanin rich water soluble extract of Emblica officinalis (EEO) from the inner phase of water-in-oil-in-water type double emulsion (DE), during in vitro digestion and phagocytosis was investigated. It was observed that release of EEO (measured as total polyphenols and gallic acid by HPLC) from inner phase of DE was maximum during intestinal digestion followed by gastric and salivary digestion. Main reason was increased particle size of emulsion droplets and change in zeta potential by the action of digestive enzymes. ACE inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity [determined by ABTS (99.58 ± 7.24 mM/mL), DPPH (76.93 ± 0.93 µM/mL) and FRAP (6.34 ± 0.13 mM/mL)] was observed on the higher side in the intestinal digesta of EEO-encapsulated DE (EEODE) as compared to salivary and gastric digesta. However, reverse trend was observed in control sample (unencapsulated-EEO). Phagocytic activity of EEODE increased with increasing its concentration of 2–10 µL. These results indicated that the developed DE matrix was effective in protecting active components of EEO during harsh digestive conditions as evident by sustained/target release. This newly developed EEODE formulation can be used as functional ingredient in the preparation of different dairy and food based functional products.

Graphic abstract

Keywords

Emblica officinalis Encapsulation Polyphenols Controlled release Phagocytosis 

Abbreviations

EEO

Emblicanin rich water soluble extract of Emblica officinalis

DE

Double emulsion

EEODE

Emblicanin rich water soluble extract of Emblica officinalis encapsulated double emulsion

ACE

Angiotensin converting enzyme

W1

Inner aqueous phase

W1/O

Water-in-oil

W2

Outer aqueous phase

PGPR

Polyglycerolpolyricinoleate

DPPH

2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

ABTS

2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ammonium salt

TPTZ

2,4,6-Tripyridyl triazine

Trolox

Ammoinum iron (II) sulphate hexahydrate, 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid

HHL

Hippuryl-His-Leu acetate salt

HA

Analytical grade hippuric acid

BSC

Benzene sulfonyl chloride

ZP

Zeta potential

PSD

Particle size distribution

DMEM

Delbacco modified Eagle medium-Ham

SSD

Simulated salivary digestion

SGD

Simulated gastric digestion

SID

Simulated intestinal digestion

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the research Grant (MoFPI/SERB/057/2015) provided by Science and Engineering Research Board, Ministry of Food Processing Industries, Government of India to conduct this research. Also, first author is thankful to Director, ICAR-NDRI for providing Senior Research Fellowship and necessary facilities to carry out this work.

Supplementary material

13197_2019_4171_MOESM1_ESM.docx (958 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 958 kb)

References

  1. Actis-Goretta L, Ottaviani JI, Fraga CG (2006) Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme activity by flavanol-rich foods. J Agric Food Chem 54(1):229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aditya NP, Aditya S, Yand H, Kim HW, Park SO, Ko S (2015) Co-delivery of hydrophobic curcumin and hydrophilic catechin by a water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion. Food Chem 173:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrade J, Wright AJ, Corredig M (2018) In vitro digestion behavior of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions with gelled oil-water inner phases. Food Res Int 105:41–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Appelqvist IAM, Golding M, Vreeker R, Zuidam NJ (2007) Emulsions as delivery systems in foods. In: Lakkis JM (ed) Encapsulation and controlled release technologies in food systems. Blackwell Publishing Professional, Iowa, pp 41–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benichou A, Aserin A, Garti N (2004) Double emulsions stabilized with hybrids of natural polymers for entrapment and slow release of active matters. Adv Colloid Int Sci 108:29–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Betz M, Steiner B, Schantz M, Oidtmann J, Mäder K, Richling E, Kulozik U (2012) Antioxidant capacity of bilberry extract microencapsulated in whey protein hydrogels. Food Res Int 47(1):51–57.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cavaillon JM (1994) Cytokines and macrophages. Biomed Pharmacol J 48:445–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chaudhary N (2017) Evaluation of dairy protein based double emulsion for the encapsulation of cardioprotective herbal extract. Ph.D. in Dairy technology thesis submitted to the ICAR-National dairy research institute, Karnal, Haryana, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  9. Chiang CJ, Kadouh H, Zhou K (2012) Phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of gooseberry as affected by invitro digestion. LWT-Food Sci Technol 51:417–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cushman DW, Cheung HS (1971) Spectrophotometric assay and properties of the angiotensin-converting enzyme of rabbit lung. Biochem Pharmacol J 20(7):1637–1648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Frank K, Walz E, Graf V, Greiner R, Kohler K, Schuchmann HP (2012) Stability of anthocyanin-rich W/O/W emulsions designed for intestinal release in gastrointestinal environment. J Food Sci 77(12):51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gao S, Hu M (2010) Bioavailability challenges associated with development of anticancer phenolics. Mini-Rev Med Chem 10(6):550–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Green RJ, Murphy AS, Schulz B, Watkins BA, Ferruzzi MG (2007) Common tea formulations modulate in vitro digestive recovery of green tea catechins. Mol Nutr Food Res 51(9):1152–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hay FC, Westwood OMR (2002) Phagocytosis, complement and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity, 4th Edn. In: Practical immunology. Blackwell Science, London, pp 203–206Google Scholar
  15. Herrero-Barbudo MC, Granado-Lorencio F, Blanco-Navarro I, Perez-Sarcristan B, Olmedilla-Alonso B (2009) Applicability of an in vitro model to assess the bioaccessibility of vitamin A and E from fortified commercial milk. Int Dairy J 19(1):64–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jiao X, Li B, Zhang Q, Gao N, Zhang X, Meng X (2018) Effect of in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and antioxidant activity of blueberry polyphenols and their cellular antioxidant activity towards HepG2 cells. Int J Food Sci Technol 53:61–71.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13516 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kaimainen M, Marze S, Järvenpää E, Anton M, Huopalahti R (2015) Encapsulation of betalain into w/o/w double emulsion and release during in vitro intestinal lipid digestion. LWT-Food Sci Technol 60:899–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Koczka N, Banyai ES, Ombodi A (2018) Total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of rosehips of some Rosa species. Medicines (Basel) 5(3):84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kumar AD (2011) Evaluation of selected matrix material for developing emulsion based delivery system for Pueraria tuberose/Vidarikand extract. M.Tech. thesis in Dairy Technology submitted to ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal, Haryana, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  20. Li Y, Qu X, Yang H, Kang L, Xu Y, Bai B, Song W (2005) Bifidobacteria DNA induces murine macrophages activation in vitro. Cell Mol Immunol 6:473–478Google Scholar
  21. Madaan A, Kanjilal S, Gupta A, Sastry JLN, Verma R, Singh AT, Jaggi M (2015) Evaluation of immunostimulatory activity of Chyawanprash using in vitro assays. Indian J Exp Biol 53:158–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Mandarika J, Krishna NR, Saidule C (2014) Effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extraction gluconeogenesis in Allaxon induced diabetic mice. J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 6(4):921–924Google Scholar
  23. Matos M, Gutiérrez G, Coca J, Pazos C (2014) Preparation of water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) double emulsions containing resveratrol. Colloids Surf A 442:111–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Middha SK, Goyal AK, Lokesh P, Yardi V, Mojamdar L, Keni DS, Babu D, Usha T (2015) Toxicological evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit extract and its antiinflammatroy and free radical scavenging properties. Pharmacogn Mag 11:S427–S433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oomen AG, Hack A, Minekus M, Zeijdner E, Cornelis C, Schoeters G, Verstraete W, Van de Wiele T, Wragg J, Rompelberg CJ, Sips AJ (2002) Comparison of five in vitro digestion models to study the bioaccessibility of soil contaminants. Environ Sci Technol 36(15):3326–3334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rajak S, Banerjee SK, Sood S, Dinda AK, Gupta YK, Gupta SK, Maulik SK (2004) Emblica officinalis causes myocardial adaptation and protects against oxidative stress in ischemic-reperfusion injury in rats. Phytother Res 18(1):54–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rao TP, Sakaguchi N, Juneja LR, Wado E, Yokozaroa T (2005) Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extracts reduced oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Food 8:362–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Saura-Calixto F, Serrano J, Goni I (2007) Intake and bioaccessibility of total polyphenols in a whole diet. Food Chem 101:492–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shaddel R, Hesari J, Azadmard-Damirchi S, Hamishehkar H, Fathi-Achachlouei B, Huang Q (2018) Double emulsion followed by complex coacervation as a promising method for protection of black raspberry anthocyanins. Food Hydrocoll 77:803–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Soriano Sancho RA, Pavan V, Pastor GM (2014) Effect of in vitro digestion on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of common bean seed coats. Food Res Int 76:74–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tazliazucchi D, Verzelloni E, Bertolini D, Conte A (2010) Invitro bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of grape polyphenols. Food Chem 120:599–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Uekusa Y, Takeshita Y, Ishii T, Nakayama T (2008) Partition coefficients of polyphenols for phosphatidylcholine investigated by HPLC with an immobilized artificial membrane column. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:3289–3292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. van Aken GA, Bomhof E, Zoet FD, Verbeek M, Oosterveld A (2011) Differences in in vitro gastric behaviour between homogenized milk and emulsions stabilised by Tween 80, whey protein, or whey protein and caseinate. Food Hydrocoll 25(4):781–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xiao J, Lu X, Huang Q (2017) Double emulsion derived from kafirin nanoparticles stabilized Pickering emulsion: fabrication, microstructure, stability and in vitro digestion profile. Food Hydrocoll 62:230–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xu W, Yang Y, Xue SJ, Shi J, Lim LT, Forney C, Xu G, Bamba SB (2018) Effect of In-vitro digestion on water in oil in water emulsions containing anthocyanin from grape skin powder. Molecules 23:2808.  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112808 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neha Chaudhary
    • 1
    Email author
  • Latha Sabikhi
    • 1
  • Shaik Abdul Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Dairy Technology DivisionICAR-National Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndia

Personalised recommendations