Emblicanin rich Emblica officinalis extract encapsulated double emulsion: controlled release of bioactive during phagocytosis and in vitro digestion

  • Neha ChaudharyEmail author
  • Latha Sabikhi
  • Shaik Abdul Hussain
Original Article


Controlled release of Emblicanin rich water soluble extract of Emblica officinalis (EEO) from the inner phase of water-in-oil-in-water type double emulsion (DE), during in vitro digestion and phagocytosis was investigated. It was observed that release of EEO (measured as total polyphenols and gallic acid by HPLC) from inner phase of DE was maximum during intestinal digestion followed by gastric and salivary digestion. Main reason was increased particle size of emulsion droplets and change in zeta potential by the action of digestive enzymes. ACE inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity [determined by ABTS (99.58 ± 7.24 mM/mL), DPPH (76.93 ± 0.93 µM/mL) and FRAP (6.34 ± 0.13 mM/mL)] was observed on the higher side in the intestinal digesta of EEO-encapsulated DE (EEODE) as compared to salivary and gastric digesta. However, reverse trend was observed in control sample (unencapsulated-EEO). Phagocytic activity of EEODE increased with increasing its concentration of 2–10 µL. These results indicated that the developed DE matrix was effective in protecting active components of EEO during harsh digestive conditions as evident by sustained/target release. This newly developed EEODE formulation can be used as functional ingredient in the preparation of different dairy and food based functional products.

Graphic abstract


Emblica officinalis Encapsulation Polyphenols Controlled release Phagocytosis 



Emblicanin rich water soluble extract of Emblica officinalis


Double emulsion


Emblicanin rich water soluble extract of Emblica officinalis encapsulated double emulsion


Angiotensin converting enzyme


Inner aqueous phase




Outer aqueous phase






2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ammonium salt


2,4,6-Tripyridyl triazine


Ammoinum iron (II) sulphate hexahydrate, 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid


Hippuryl-His-Leu acetate salt


Analytical grade hippuric acid


Benzene sulfonyl chloride


Zeta potential


Particle size distribution


Delbacco modified Eagle medium-Ham


Simulated salivary digestion


Simulated gastric digestion


Simulated intestinal digestion



The authors gratefully acknowledge the research Grant (MoFPI/SERB/057/2015) provided by Science and Engineering Research Board, Ministry of Food Processing Industries, Government of India to conduct this research. Also, first author is thankful to Director, ICAR-NDRI for providing Senior Research Fellowship and necessary facilities to carry out this work.

Supplementary material

13197_2019_4171_MOESM1_ESM.docx (958 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 958 kb)


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neha Chaudhary
    • 1
    Email author
  • Latha Sabikhi
    • 1
  • Shaik Abdul Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Dairy Technology DivisionICAR-National Dairy Research InstituteKarnalIndia

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