Volatome finger printing of red wines made from grapes grown under tropical conditions of India using thermal-desorption gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD–GC/MS)

  • R. G. SomkuwarEmail author
  • A. K. Sharma
  • Narayan Kambale
  • Kaushik Banerjee
  • M. A. Bhange
  • D. P. Oulkar
Original Article


The current study evaluated the key characters of aroma composition in diversified red wines (Cinsaut, Grenache, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Nielluccio, Tempranillo, Syrah, Merlot and Caladoc). Out of hundreds of volatile compounds 64 compounds were considered for study. Different groups consisting of fatty acids, volatile alcohols, aldehydes, esters, volatile phenols and terpenes were analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry coupled with thermal desorption (TD–GC–MS). Among all these diversified classes, alcohols were found as the most dominant group followed by esters and acids whereas aldehydes, phenols and terpenes were found to be minor compounds. Among the varieties, Nielluccio wine recorded highest concentration of total volatile compounds (191.53 mg/L) while, it was least in Caladoc wines (15.45 mg/L). The principal component analysis clearly differentiated Grenache wines based on their relationships between scores and their aroma composition followed by Nielluccio and Cinsuat wines. Out of sixty four compounds, only six aromatic compounds viz. butanediol, isoamyl actate, γ-Terpene, butanol, acetic acid and furfural have satisfying aroma descriptors with floral and fruity nuances and contribute to differentiate the Grenache wines from other varieties which have similar scores in PC1 analysis. The cluster analysis also suggested that the wines in the same group (Cinsaut, Tempranillo and Syrah), (Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Caladoc and Merlot) and (Nielluccio and Petit Verdot) had similar aroma characterization. Grenache wines were well differentiated from the sub group formed by other red varieties.


Volatile compounds Wines Red wine varieties Phenolics TD–GC–MS 



The authors are thankful to the Director General of Agriculture, Food Processing and Territorial Policies of the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Government of France for providing the planting material to carry out research work on evaluation of wine varieties under Pune conditions. The Director, ICAR-NRC Grapes, Pune also deserves for sincere thanks for providing the guidance and required facilities for carrying out the research.

Supplementary material

13197_2019_4147_MOESM1_ESM.docx (73 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 72 kb)
13197_2019_4147_MOESM2_ESM.docx (20 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 19 kb)


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. Somkuwar
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. K. Sharma
    • 1
  • Narayan Kambale
    • 1
  • Kaushik Banerjee
    • 1
  • M. A. Bhange
    • 1
  • D. P. Oulkar
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-National Research Centre for GrapesPuneIndia

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