Rheological, physico-sensory and antioxidant properties of punicic acid rich wheat bread
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Punicic acid (PA), a predominant fatty acid (85%) in pomegranate seeds, also called as an ω-5 fatty acid, is known to render various health beneficial effects to humans. The objective of this study was to prepare and observe the effect of replacement of wheat flour with 5–12.5% punicic acid rich pomegranate seed powder (PSP, 9XXX fraction) on rheological, physico-sensory and antioxidant properties of bread. The increasing amount of PSP caused decrease in farinograph water absorption capacity, dough stability; amylograph peak viscosity; bread volume and overall quality score, whereas crumb hardness was increased. The combination of additives (CA) showed significant improvement in dough strength, texture and quality of bread with 10% PSP. The total polyphenol content (TPP) and radical scavenging activity (RSA) increased by 10- to 30-fold while PA was increased to 60-fold when compared to control. The recovery of PA from bread samples was in range of 45–60% and further increased by the addition of CA (65%). Hence, 10% PSP bread having 60% recovery of PA can be successfully considered for formulations without altering the rheological and sensory quality of bread. These results reveal that PA rich PSP prepared from a fruit industry by-product can be utilized for preparing antioxidant rich functional bread which also helps in overall improvement of bone health.
KeywordsBread Rheology Pomegranate seeds Punicic acid Antioxidant activity
We thank Heads of the departments of Biochemistry and Flour Milling and Baking, Confectionary Technology and Director, CSIR-CFTRI, Mysuru for their kind help and encouragement during the studies. Ms. P Aruna expresses her gratitude towards Department of Science & Technology (DST), New Delhi for awarding INSPIRE Fellowship to her.
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Conflict of interest
All the authors in this manuscript declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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