Advertisement

Cashew nut and cashew apple: a scientific and technological monitoring worldwide review

  • Nathalia Nogueira OliveiraEmail author
  • Cheila Gonçalves Mothé
  • Michelle Gonçalves Mothé
  • Leandra Guimarães de Oliveira
Review Article
  • 55 Downloads

Abstract

The cashew tree or Anacardium occidentale, a tropical tree native from Brazil, was introduced to Asia and Africa by European explorers in the sixteenth century. The world production of cashew nuts reached 4.89 million tons in 2016, with Vietnam being the largest producer of nuts. The cashew market is expected to remain strong due to high production growth in some areas, such as West Africa. Cashew production is potentially an important value for small farmers in emerging countries and there is an immense potential for cashew by-product exploitation that can add value to cashew agribusiness. The present work carries out a technological prospection in databases of patents and scientific papers mapping the applications of cashew nuts and cashew apple. It was possible to identify 2376 patent applications and 586 scientific publications on cashew nuts and cashew apple together. After the analysis of patents and scientific papers, it was possible to note that the cashew tree is a tree of multiple uses that can contribute in several industry sectors. Thus, the present study mapped the potentiality of applications of the various parts of the cashew, which allows adding value to the cashew agribusiness.

Keywords

Anacardium occidentale Cashew agribusiness Technological monitoring Cashew nut Cashew apple 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), the Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Studies (CAPES) for financial support.

References

  1. Abdul SM, Peter KV (2010) Cashew, a monograph. Studium Press (India) Pvt. Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  2. Akinhanmi TF, Atasie VN, Akintokun P (2008) Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) oil and cashew nut shell liquid. J Agric Food Environ Sci 2(1):1–10Google Scholar
  3. Akinwale TO (2000) Cashew apple juice: its use in fortifying the nutritional quality of some tropical fruits. Eur Food Res Technol 211(3):205–207Google Scholar
  4. Aremu MO et al (2006) Compositional studies and physicochemical characteristics of cashew nut (Anarcadium occidentale) flour. Pak J Nutr 5(4):328–333Google Scholar
  5. Aremu MO, Ogunlade I, Olonisakin A (2007) Fatty acid and amino acid composition of protein concentrate from cashew nut (Anarcadium occidentale) grownin Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Pak J Nutr 6(5):419–423Google Scholar
  6. Arumugam A, Ponnusami V (2015) Ethanol production from cashew apple juice using immobilized saccharomyces cerevisiae cells on silica gel matrix synthesized from sugarcane leaf ash. Chem Eng Commun 202:709–717Google Scholar
  7. Assunção RB, Mercadante AZ (2003) Carotenoids and ascorbic acid from cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.): variety and geographic effects. Food Chem 81(4):495–502Google Scholar
  8. Azam-Ali SH, Judge EC (2001) Small-scale cashew nut processing. Food and Agriculture organization—FAO, Rugby. http://www.anacardium.info/IMG/pdf/Small-scale_Cashew_Nut_Processing_-_FAO_2001.pdf. Accessed 04 Apr 2019
  9. Barros EM et al (2014) A yeast isolated from cashew apple juice and its ability to produce first- and second-generation ethanol. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 174:2762–2776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brito ES et al (2007) Determination of the flavonoid components of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale) by LC-DAD-ESI/MS. Food Chem 105(3):1112–1118PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Brizicky GK (1962) The genera of Anacardiaceae in the Southeastern United States. J Arnold Arbor 43:359–365Google Scholar
  12. Carestiato T, Aguila MB, Mothé CG (2009) The effects of cashew gum as anti-hypertensive agent. J Therm Anal Calorim 97(2):717–720Google Scholar
  13. Conab (2018) Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento https://www.conab.gov.br Accessed 01 Nov 2018
  14. Deenanath ED, Iyuke S, Rumbold K (2012) The bioethanol industry in Sub-Saharan Africa: history, challenges, and prospects. J Biomed Biotechnol.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/416491 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Dendena B, Corsi S (2014) Cashew, from seed to market: a review. Agron Sustain Dev.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-014-0240-7 Google Scholar
  16. Embrapa (1993) Cajueiro-anão-precoce. Boletim informativo, FortalezaGoogle Scholar
  17. FAO (2018) The Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations http://www.fao.org/statistics/en. Accessed 01 Nov 2018
  18. Fitzpatrick J (2011) Cashew nut processing equipment study summary. http://www.africancashewalliance.com/sites/default/files/documents/equipment_study_ab_pdf_final_13_9_2011.pdf. Accessed 01 Nov 2018
  19. Freire FCO et al (2002) Diseases of cashew nut plants (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Brazil. Crop Prot 21:489–494Google Scholar
  20. Hoffmann-Ribani R, Huber LS, Rodriguez-Amaya DB (2009) Flavonols in fresh and processed Brazilian fruits. J Food Compos Anal 22(4):263–268Google Scholar
  21. Honorato TL, Rabelo MC, Gonçalves LRB, Pinto GAS, Rodrigues S (2007) Fermentation of cashew apple juice to produce high added value products. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 23(10):1409–1415.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-007-9381 Google Scholar
  22. Hu FB, Manson JE, Willett WC (2001) Types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr 20:5–19.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2001.10719008 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. IBGE (2018) Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e estatística. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e estatístics. https://www.ibge.gov.br/. Accessed 01 Nov 2018
  24. Khandetod YP, Mohod AG, Shrirame HY (2016) Bioethanol production from fermented cashew apple juice by solar concentrator. In: Proceedings of the first international conference on recent advances in bioenergy researchGoogle Scholar
  25. Khosla PK, Sareen TS, Mehra PN (1973) Cytological studies on Himalayan Anacardiaceae. Nucleous 4:205–209Google Scholar
  26. Lim TK (2012) Anacardium occidentale. In: Lim TK (ed) Edible medicinal and nonmedicinal plants. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 45–68Google Scholar
  27. Lorenzi A (2004) Árvores brasileiras: manual de identificação e cultivo de plantas arbóreas nativas do Brazil, 4th ed. Instituto Plantarum, Nova Odessa, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, p 368Google Scholar
  28. Macleod AJ, Troconis NG (1982) Volatile flavour components of cashew ‘apple’ (Anacardium occidentale). Phytochemistry 21(10):2527–2530Google Scholar
  29. Mdic (2018) www.mdic.gov.br/comercio-exterior/estatisticas-de-comercio-exterior/comex-vis. Ministério da Indústria, Comercio Exterior e Serviços. Accessed 22 Aug 2018
  30. Medina JC, Bleinroth EW, Bernhardt LWEA (1978) Caju – da cultura ao processamento e comercialização. Instituto de tecnologia de Alimentos, CampinasGoogle Scholar
  31. Melo JRT (2002) Fruticultura - Caju oferece emprego e renda nas longas estiagens. Revista Gleba - Informativo técnicoGoogle Scholar
  32. Michodjehoun-Mestres L et al (2009) Monomeric phenols of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.). Food Chem 112(4):851–857Google Scholar
  33. Mitchell JD, Mori SA (1987) The cashew and its relatives (Anacardium: Anacardiaceae). Mem N Y Bot Gard 42:1–76Google Scholar
  34. Moreira PAA (2002) O cajueiro – vida, uso e estórias. Editora Cristina Barbosa, FortalezaGoogle Scholar
  35. Mothé CG, Correia DZ, Silva TC (2006) Potencialidades do cajueiro. Publit, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  36. Mothé CG, de Freitas JS (2018) Lifetime prediction and kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition of cashew gum by thermal analysis. J Therm Anal Calorim 131(1):397–404Google Scholar
  37. Mothé CG, Oliveira NN, de Freitas JS, Mothe M (2017) Cashew Tree Gum: A Scientific and Technological Review. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology 2(2):681–688Google Scholar
  38. Nair KP (2010) The agronomy and economy of important tree crops of the developing world. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  39. Paiva FFA, Garrutti DS, Neto RMS (2000) Aproveitamento industrial do caju, vol 38. Embrapa-CNPAT/SEBRAE/CE, FortalezaGoogle Scholar
  40. Patil PJ (2017) Indian cashew food. Integr Food Nutr Metab 4(2):1–5.  https://doi.org/10.15761/IFNM.1000173 Google Scholar
  41. Pimentel CRM, Pessoa PFADP, Leite LADS (1998) Economia do caju. In: da Silva VV (ed) Caju. Cap 9, 2nd edn. Embrapa, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, pp 214–220Google Scholar
  42. Pinheiro ADT et al (2008) Evaluation of cashew apple juice for the production of fuel ethanol. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 148:227–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Rani TJPKVSRG, Dodoala S (2017) Evaluation of antiobesity activity of ethanolic extract of cashew apple against high fat diet induced obesity in rodents. FASEB J 31(1 supplement):565Google Scholar
  44. Shenoy D et al (2011) A study on bioethanol production from cashew apple pulp and coffee pulp waste. Biomass Bioenergy 35:4107–4111Google Scholar
  45. Silveira MS, Fontes CP, Guilherme AA, Fernandes FA, Rodrigues S (2012) Cashew apple juice as substrate for lactic acid production. Food Bioprocess Technol 5(3):947–953.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-010-0382-9 Google Scholar
  46. Talasila U, Vechalapu RR (2015) Optimization of medium constituents for the production of bioethanol from cashew apple juice using Doehlert experimental design. Int J Fruit Sci 15:161–172Google Scholar
  47. Tassara H (1996) Frutas no Brasil. Editora Empresa das Artes, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  48. Vasconcelos MS et al (2015) Anti-inflammatory and wound healing potential of cashew apple juice (Anacardium occidentale L.) in mice. Exp Biol Med 240(12):1648–1655Google Scholar
  49. Venkatachalam M, Sathe SK (2006) Chemical composition of selected ediblenutseeds. J Agric Food Chem 54:4705–4714.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0606959 PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Organic Processes, School of ChemistryFederal University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI)Rio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations