Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 60–69 | Cite as

Microencapsulation of oil and protein hydrolysate from fish within a high-pressure homogenized double emulsion

  • Aniseh Jamshidi
  • Teresa Antequera
  • Juan Carlos Solomando
  • Trinidad Perez-PalaciosEmail author
Original Article


In this study, the effect of high-pressure homogenization on the water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) double emulsions containing fish protein hydrolysate and fish oil encapsulated within a complex of whey protein concentrate and inulin were investigated in order to produce stable double emulsion. After adequacy of the positive influence of high-pressure homogenization at W1/O (one pass) and W1/O/W2 (three passes), the double emulsions were produced with (H) and without (HS) high-pressure homogenization. H samples were demonstrated lower CI of double emulsion and higher amounts of yield, total oil, encapsulated oil, EPA and DHA of microcapsules in comparison with HS samples. At subsequent step, response surface methodology were applied to optimize the high-pressure homogenization conditions (700–1500 Ba) of double emulsions in terms of minimum CI of emulsions and maximum microencapsulation efficiency and oxidation stability. Optimal conditions were obtained by using high-pressure homogenization at 1000 and 1100 Ba on W1/O and W1/O/W2, respectively.


Double emulsion Fish protein hydrolysate Fish oil High-pressure homogenization Response surface methodology 



Authors, especially Trinidad Perez-Palacios, acknowledge to the Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI) and the Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER) the funding for this study, which was supported by the project AGL2016-73260-JIN (AEI/FEDER/UE).

Supplementary material

13197_2019_4029_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 15 kb)


  1. Anwar SH, Kunz B (2011) The influence of drying methods on the stabilization of fish oil microcapsules: comparison of spray granulation, spray-drying, and freeze drying. J Food Eng 105:367–378. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Association of Official Analytical Chemist (2002) Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. Vols. 1 and 2, 17th edn. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  3. Benchabane S, Subirade M, Vandenberg GW (2007) Production of BSA-loaded alginate microcapsules: influence of spray dryer parameters on the microcapsule characteristics and BSA release. J Microencapsul 24:647–658. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carneiro HC, Tonon RV, Grosso CR, Hubinger MD (2013) Encapsulation efficiency and oxidative stability of flaxseed oil microencapsulated by spray drying using different combinations of wall materials. J Food Eng 115:443–451. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carrillo-Navas H, Cruz-Olivares J, Varela-Guerrero V, Alamilla-Beltrán L, Vernon-Carter EJ, Pérez-Alonso C (2012) Rheological properties of a double emulsion nutraceutical system incorporating chia essential oil and ascorbic acid stabilized by carbohydrate polymer–protein blends. Carbohydr Polym 87:1231–1235. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Barros Fernandes RV, Borges SV, Botrel DA (2014) Gum arabic/starch/maltodextrin/inulin as wall materials on the microencapsulation of rosemary essential oil. Carbohydr Polym 101:524–532. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Desrumaux A, Marcand J (2002) Formation of sunflower oil emulsions stabilized by whey proteins with high-pressure homogenization (up to 350 MPa): effect of pressure on emulsion characteristics. Int J Food Sci Technol 37:263–269. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Do Carmo EL, Teodoro RAR, Félix PHC, de Barros Fernandes RV, de Oliveira ÉR, Veiga TRLA, Botrel DA (2017) Stability of spray-dried beetroot extract using oligosaccharides and whey proteins. Food Chem 249:51–59. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fernández-Martín F, Freire M, Bou R, Cofrades S, Jiménez-Colmenero F (2017) Olive oil based edible W/O/W emulsions stability as affected by addition of some acylglycerides. J Food Eng 196:18–26. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Garcia LC, Tonon RV, Hubinger MD (2012) Effect of homogenization pressure and oil load on the emulsion properties and the oil retention of microencapsulated basil essential oil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Dry Technol 30:1413–1421. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hu ZX, Zhong QX (2010) Determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in microencapsulated products. Food Chem 123:794–799. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hunt JA, Dalgleish DG (1994) Effect of pH on the stability and surface composition of emulsions made with whey protein isolate. J Agric Food Chem 42:2131–2135. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jiménez-Martín E, Rojas TA, Gharsallaoui A, Carrascal JR, Pérez-Palacios T (2016) Fatty acid composition in double and multilayered microcapsules of ω-3 as affected by storage conditions and type of emulsions. Food Chem 194:476–486. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Joglekar AM, May AT (1987) Product excellence through design of experiments. Cereal Foods World 32:857Google Scholar
  15. Kim YL, Mun S, Rho SJ, Do HV, Kim YR (2017) Influence of physicochemical properties of enzymatically modified starch gel on the encapsulation efficiency of W/O/W emulsion containing NaCl. Food Bioprocess Technol 10:77–88. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Klaypradit W, Huang YW (2008) Fish oil encapsulation with chitosan using ultrasonic atomizer. LWT-Food Sci Technol 41:1133–1139. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Klinkesorn U, Sophanodora P, Chinachoti P, Decker EA, McClements DJ (2006) Characterization of spray-dried tuna oil emulsified in two-layered interfacial membranes prepared using electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition. Food Res Int 39:449–457. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kuhn KR, Cunha RL (2012) Flaxseed oil–whey protein isolate emulsions: effect of high pressure homogenization. J Food Eng 111:449–457. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li X, Wang L, Wang B (2017) Optimization of encapsulation efficiency and average particle size of Hohenbuehelia serotina polysaccharides nanoemulsions using response surface methodology. Food Chem 229:479–486. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. McClements DJ (2004) Food emulsions: principles, particles, and techniques, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McClements DJ, Decker EA, Weiss J (2007) Emulsion-based delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive components. J Food Sci 72:109–124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Myers RH, Montgomery DC (2002) Response surface methodology: process and product optimization using designed experiments, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Narayan P, Marchant D, Wheatley MA (2001) Optimization of spray drying by factorial design for production of hollow microspheres for ultrasound imaging. J Biomed Mater Res A 56:333–341.;2-K CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. O’Regan J, Mulvihill DM (2009) Water soluble inner aqueous phase markers as indicators of the encapsulation properties of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with sodium caseinate. Food Hydrocoll 23:2339–2345. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ovissipour M, Rasco B, Shiroodi SG, Modanlow M, Gholami S, Nemati M (2012) Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from whole anchovy sprat (Clupeonella engrauliformis) prepared using endogenous enzymes and commercial proteases. J Sci Food Agric 93:1718–1726. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Pacheco-Aguilar R, Mazorra-Manzano MA, Ramírez-Suárez JC (2008) Functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates from Pacific whiting (Merluccius productus) muscle produced by a commercial protease. Food Chem 109:782–789. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Robert P, García P, Reyes N, Chávez J, Santos J (2012) Acetylated starch andinulin as encapsulating agents of gallic acid and their release behaviour in ahydrophilic system. Food Chem 134:1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Salimi A, Maghsoudlou Y, Jafari SM, Mahoonak AS, Kashaninejad M, Ziaiifar AM (2015) Preparation of lycopene emulsions by whey protein concentrate and maltodextrin and optimization by response surface methodology. J Dispers Sci Technol 36:274–283. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. San Martin-González MF, Roach A, Harte F (2009) Rheological properties of corn oil emulsions stabilized by commercial micellar casein and high pressure homogenization. LWT-Food Sci Technol 42:307–311. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sapei L, Naqvi MA, Rousseau D (2012) Stability and release properties of double emulsions for food applications. Food Hydro 27:316–323. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shukat R, Relkin P (2011) Lipid nanoparticles as vitamin matrix carriers in liquid food systems: on the role of high-pressure homogenisation, droplet size and adsorbed materials. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 86:119–124. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Silva VM, Vieira GS, Hubinger MD (2014) Influence of different combinations of wall materials and homogenisation pressure on the microencapsulation of green coffee oil by spray drying. J Food Res Int 61:132–143. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Soottitantawat A, Bigeard F, Yoshii H, Furuta T, Ohkawara M, Linko P (2005) Influence of emulsion and powder size on the stability of encapsulated d-limonene by spray drying. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 6:107–114. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tornberg E (1980) Functional characteristics of protein-stabilized emulsions: emulsifying behaviour of proteins in a sonifier. J Food Sci 45:1162–1168. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Van der Graaf S, Schroën CGPH, Boom RM (2005) Preparation of double emulsions by membrane emulsification: a review. J Membr Sci 251:7–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Velasco J, Marmesat S, Dobarganes C, Márquez-Ruiz G (2006) Heterogeneous aspects of lipid oxidation in dried microencapsulated oils. J Agric Food Chem 54:1722–1729. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhong Q, Jin M, Davidson PM, Zivanovic S (2009) Sustained release of lysozyme from zein microcapsules produced by a supercritical anti-solvent process. Food Chem 115:697–700. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Agricultural Sciences and Natural ResourcesGorgan UniversityGorganIran
  2. 2.Research Institute of Meat and Meat Products (IProCar)University of ExtremaduraCáceresSpain

Personalised recommendations