Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 11, pp 5074–5086 | Cite as

Evaluating the efficacy of chitosan and CMC incorporated with moringa leaf extracts on reducing peteca spot incidence on ‘Eureka’ lemon

  • Muriel Mbhoni Rikhotso
  • Lembe Samukelo MagwazaEmail author
  • Samson Zeray Tesfay
  • Asanda MditshwaEmail author
Original Article


Lemon (Citrus limon L.) is one of the most cultivated citrus fruit in South Africa. In citrus packhouses, fruit are coated with commercial synthetic waxes to enhance shelflife. However, the use of waxes has been linked to peteca spot (PS) incidence in lemons. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CH) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) incorporated with moringa leaf extracts (M) on reducing peteca spot incidence on ‘Eureka’ lemon. A total of 500 ‘Eureka’ lemons were harvested from outside and inside canopy positions from a commercial orchard in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Fruit were assigned to five coating treatments, namely; control, 1% M + CMC, 1% CMC, 1% CH and 1% M + CH. After coating, fruit were transferred into a cold room with delivery air temperature set at 3 °C for 12 weeks to induce the disorder. At each sampling week, peteca spot incidence, fruit physicochemical and phytochemical properties including color, mass, vitamin C, carotenoids, TSS, TA and phenolics were measured. The results showed that coating treatments and canopy position significantly affected PS incidence. Fruit coated with M + CMC, CMC, CH were less susceptible to PS development in both inside and outside canopy compared to the control and M + CH coated fruit. Coating treatments significantly affected phenolic and flavonoid concentration. Moreover, coating treatments significantly reduced mass loss, ascorbic acid loss and delayed color change of fruit. The results found in this study demonstrated the ability of either M + CMC, CMC, or CH as coating treatments for reducing PS in ‘Eureka’ lemon.


Canopy position Edible coatings Physicochemical properties Citrus Peteca spot Moringa 



This research was financially supported by Citrus Academy and National Research Foundation of South Africa. The authors are grateful to Mr. Thokozani Nkosi for his technical assistance in the Postharvest Research Laboratory of the University of KwaZulu Natal, Pietermaritzburg.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Horticultural Sciences, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalScottsville, PietermaritzburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Crop Science, School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalScottsville, PietermaritzburgSouth Africa

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