Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 11, pp 5146–5151 | Cite as

Antibiotic residues and mycotoxins in raw milk in Punjab (India): a rising concern for food safety

  • Pallavi MoudgilEmail author
  • Jasbir Singh Bedi
  • Rabinder Singh Aulakh
  • Jatinder Paul Singh Gill
Short Communication


The present study was envisaged with an aim to determine the occurrence of antibiotic residues; enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, sulphamethoxazole and chloramphenicol as well as mycotoxins; aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in raw milk samples collected from individual animals from dairy farms located in 9 districts of Punjab, India. A total of 168 raw milk samples were collected and analysed using commercially available competitive Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Out of these, 19 (11.3%) and 9 (5.4%) samples were found positive for antibiotic residues and mycotoxins, respectively. The milk samples were positive for enrofloxacin (4.8%), oxytetracycline (3.0%), penicillin G (3.0%) and sulphamethoxazole (0.6%) residues. The percentage of samples found above maximum residue limit established by Europen Union (EU)/Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) were 1.7%, 1.2% and 0.6% for enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and penicillin G residues, respectively. Aflatoxin M1 was detected in 5.4% of monitored milk samples with 1.2% samples exceeded the established maximum levels of EU but were below the maximum levels established by CAC. The occurrence of antibiotic residues and mycotoxins in raw milk samples above maximum limits is a rising concern for food safety due to possibility of health risks to the consumers.


Antibiotic residues Health risks Milk Mycotoxins 



Authors are thankful to “Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana” (RKVY), Government of India, for providing funds for undertaking the study through project entitled “Studies on current scenario of antibiotic residues in food of animal origin in the Punjab and prevention of antibiotic residue risks”.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pallavi Moudgil
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jasbir Singh Bedi
    • 1
  • Rabinder Singh Aulakh
    • 1
  • Jatinder Paul Singh Gill
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Public Health and ZoonosesGuru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Public Health and EpidemiologyLala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal SciencesHisarIndia

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