Antibiotic residues and mycotoxins in raw milk in Punjab (India): a rising concern for food safety
The present study was envisaged with an aim to determine the occurrence of antibiotic residues; enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, sulphamethoxazole and chloramphenicol as well as mycotoxins; aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in raw milk samples collected from individual animals from dairy farms located in 9 districts of Punjab, India. A total of 168 raw milk samples were collected and analysed using commercially available competitive Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Out of these, 19 (11.3%) and 9 (5.4%) samples were found positive for antibiotic residues and mycotoxins, respectively. The milk samples were positive for enrofloxacin (4.8%), oxytetracycline (3.0%), penicillin G (3.0%) and sulphamethoxazole (0.6%) residues. The percentage of samples found above maximum residue limit established by Europen Union (EU)/Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) were 1.7%, 1.2% and 0.6% for enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and penicillin G residues, respectively. Aflatoxin M1 was detected in 5.4% of monitored milk samples with 1.2% samples exceeded the established maximum levels of EU but were below the maximum levels established by CAC. The occurrence of antibiotic residues and mycotoxins in raw milk samples above maximum limits is a rising concern for food safety due to possibility of health risks to the consumers.
KeywordsAntibiotic residues Health risks Milk Mycotoxins
Authors are thankful to “Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana” (RKVY), Government of India, for providing funds for undertaking the study through project entitled “Studies on current scenario of antibiotic residues in food of animal origin in the Punjab and prevention of antibiotic residue risks”.
- Abebew D, Belihu K, Zewde G (2014) Detection and determination of oxytetracycline and penicillin G antibiotic residue levels in bovine bulk milk from Nazareth dairy farms. Ethiop Vet J 18:1–15Google Scholar
- Ahlberg S, Korhonen H, Lindfors E, Kangethe E (2016) Analysis of antibiotic residues in milk from smallholder farms in Kenya. Afr J Dairy Farming Milk Prod 3:152–158Google Scholar
- Bilandzic N, Varenina I, Kolanovic BS, Luburic DB, Benic M, Cvetnic L, Tankovic S, Cvetnic Z (2016) Monitoring of aflatoxin M1 in raw cow milk in Croatia during winter 2015. Mljekarstvo 66:81–85Google Scholar
- EC (2002) European Commission. Comission regulation of 2002/657/EC, 12 August. Implementing council directive 96/23/EC concerning the performance of analytical methods and the interpretation of results. Official Journal of European Communities, L221/8–L221/36Google Scholar
- Elizabeta DS, Zehra HM, Biljana SD, Pavle S, Risto U (2011) Screening of veterinary drug residues in milk from individual farms in Macedonia. Maced Vet Rev 34:5–13Google Scholar
- Elzupir AO, Makawi SZA, Elhussein AM (2009) Determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in dairy cattle feed and milk in Wad Medani, Sudan. J Anim Vet Adv 8:2508–2511Google Scholar
- Kebede G, Zenebe T, Disassa H, Tolosa T (2014) Review on detection of antimicrobial residues in raw bulk milk in dairy farms. Afr J Basic Appl Sci 6:87–97Google Scholar
- Moharana B, Venkatesh PK, Preetha SP, Selvasubramanian S (2015) Quantification of enrofloxacin residues in milk sample using RP-HPLC. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 4:1443–1450Google Scholar
- Padol AR, Malapure CD, Domple VD, Kamdi BP (2015) Occurrence, public health implications and detection of antibacterial drug residues in cow milk. EWIJST 10:7–28Google Scholar
- RASFF (2011) Rapid alert system for food and feed. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/rasff-window/portal. Accessed 18 Apr 2018
- Volkel I, Schroer-Merker E, Czerny CP (2011) The carry-over of mycotoxins in products of animal origin with special regard to its implications for the European food safety legislation. Food Nutr Sci 2:852–867Google Scholar