Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 9, pp 4068–4075 | Cite as

Optimization of process parameters for mechanical extraction of banana juice using response surface methodology

  • Nuria MajaliwaEmail author
  • Oscar Kibazohi
  • Marie Alminger
Original Article


Banana juice is traditionally processed under very basic conditions characterized by low efficiency and poor hygiene. Introduction of mechanical pressing has created opportunities for upgrading banana juice production, but more knowledge is needed about critical factors for juice release and about optimizing extraction for higher yield and quality. This study sought to identify and optimize important factors associated with juice release. This was done using an experimental design (Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology) involving three levels of three independent variables: blending speed (1000–3500 rpm), extraction time (30–240 s), and stage of ripeness (3–7). A second-order polynomial equation was created to describe the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The results showed that juice yield increased with blending speed, extraction time, and stage of ripeness, whereas the quadratic (squared) effect of these factors was a significant decrease in juice yield. Optimum juice yield (57.5%) was obtained at blending speed 2650 rpm, extraction time 162 s, and ripeness stage 5. Analysis of variance showed that stage of ripeness significantly (p ≤ 0.001) affected juice yield. This novel information on the underlying factors in banana juice extraction and on optimization of the process can be used to improve mechanical extraction of low-viscosity, clear banana juice and achieve scaling-up of banana juice processing.


Banana juice Mechanical juice extraction Optimization Response surface methodology 



The financial support of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) under the program “Sustainable Agricultural Productivity, Processing and Value Chain for Enhancing Food security in Tanzania” is gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.


  1. Adeniji TA, Tenkouano A, Ezurike JN, Ariyo CO, Vroh-Bi I (2010) Value-adding post harvest processing of cooking bananas (Musa spp. AAB and ABB genome groups). Afr J Biotechnol 9:9135–9141Google Scholar
  2. Affognon H, Mutungi C, Sanginga P, Borgemeister C (2015) Unpacking postharvest losses in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis. World Dev 66:49–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baranyi J, Pin C, Ross T (1999) Validating and comparing predictive models. Int J Food Microbiol 48:159–166. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Byarugaba-Bazirake G (2008) The effect of enzymatic processing on banana juice and wine. PhD thesis, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch. Accessed 7 Aug 2017
  5. Gensi R, Kyamuhangire W, Carasco JF (1994) Traditional production and characteristic of banana juice in Uganda. In: African Crop Science conference proceedings, vol 1, pp 356–359 (Uganda)Google Scholar
  6. Goldstein T, Swain J (1963) Changes in Tannins. In: Robins R (ed) Phytochemistry, vol 2. Pergamon Press Ltd, England, pp 371–383Google Scholar
  7. Gomez A, Gomes A (1976) Statistical procedures for agricultural research with emphasis on rice. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Ibarra-Junquera V, Escalante-Minakata P, Chávez-Rodríguez AM, Comparan-Dueñas IA, Osuna-Castro JA, de Ornelas-Paz J, Aguilar CN (2014) Optimization, modeling, and online monitoring of the enzymatic extraction of banana juice. Food Bioproc Technol 7:71–83. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kelley K (2007) Sample size planning for the coefficient of variation from the accuracy in parameter estimation approach. Behav Res Methods 39:755–766. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kibazohi O, Kyamuhangire W, Kaunga DL, Rokoni C (2017) Process improvement for mechanical extraction of low-viscosity clear banana juice. Afr J Food Sci 11:291–295. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kumar S (2015) Role of enzymes in fruit juice processing and its quality enhancement. Adv Appl Sci Res 6:114–124Google Scholar
  12. Kyamuhangire W (1990) Banana juice extraction and processing. PhD thesis, University of New South Wales, KensingtonGoogle Scholar
  13. Kyamuhangire W (1998) Technological aspects of the mechanical extraction of banana juice. Doctor Scientiarum Thesis, Agricultural University of Norway, Norway Google Scholar
  14. Kyamuhangire W, Pehrson R (1997) Adaptation of the traditional banana juice extraction technology to a mechanical process and factors influencing juice release. In: II international symposium on banana: I international symposium on banana in the subtropics, vol 490, pp 577–584 (Spain)Google Scholar
  15. Kyamuhangire W, Pehrson R (1999) Conditions in banana ripening using the rack and pit traditional methods and their effect on juice extraction. J Sci Food Agric 79:347–352. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kyamuhangire W, Myhre H, Sørensen HT, Pehrson R (2002) Yield characteristics and composition of banana juice extracted by the enzymatic and mechanical methods. J Sci Food Agric 4:478–482. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kyamuhangire W, Krekling T, Reed E, Pehrson R (2006) The microstructure and tannin content of banana fruit and their likely influence on juice extraction. J Sci Food Agric 12:1908–1915. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Landbo AK, Kaack K, Meyer AS (2007) Statistically designed two step response surface optimization of enzymatic prepress treatment to increase juice yield and lower turbidity of elderberry juice. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 8:135–142. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee WC, Yusof S (2006) Optimizing conditions for hot water extraction of banana juice using response surface methodology (RSM). J Food Eng 75:473–479. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mohapatra D, Mishra S (2011) Post-harvest processing of banana: opportunities and challenges. Food Bioproc Technol 4:327–339. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mohapatra D, Mishra S, Sutar N (2010) Banana and its by-product utilisation: an overview. Pak J Sci Ind Res Pak 69:323–329Google Scholar
  22. Naumann H, Hagerman A, Lambert B, Muir J, Tedeschi L, Kothmann M (2014) Molecular weight and protein-precipitating ability of condensed tannins from warm-season perennial legumes. J Plant Interact 9:212–219. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ozdal T, Capanoglu E, Altay F (2013) A review on protein–phenolic interactions and associated changes. Food Res Intl 51:954–970. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Palmer JK (1979) Tropical foods: chemistry and nutrition. Academic Press, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Pedersen EK (2012) Factors affecting the adoption of improved banana technologies in Northern Tanzania. Accessed 8 Oct 2017
  26. Raissi S, Farsani RE (2009) Statistical-process-optimization-through-multi-response-surface-methodology. Int J Math Sci 3:197–201Google Scholar
  27. Romano FL, Ambrosano GMB, de Magnani MBB, Nouer DF (2005) Analysis of the coefficient of variation in shear and tensile bond strength tests. J Appl Oral Sci 13:243–246CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Ross T (1996) Indices for performance evaluation of predictive models in food microbiology. J Appl Bacteriol 81:501–508. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Sagu ST, Nso EJ, Karmakar S, De S (2014) Optimisation of low temperature extraction of banana juice using commercial pectinase. Food Chem 151:182–190. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Tapre AR, Jain RK (2012) Study of advanced maturity stages of banana. Int J Adv Eng Res Stud 1:272–274Google Scholar
  31. Tapre AR, Jain RK (2014) Pectinases: enzymes for fruit processing industry. Int Food Res J 21:447–453Google Scholar
  32. Trust K (2012) Analysis of the banana value chains in Tanzania and Uganda and challenges.—Banana VCA Report production consumption and challenges. Accessed 18 July 2017
  33. Viquez F, Lastreto C, Cooke RD (1981) A study of the production of clarified banana juice using pectinolytic enzymes. J Food Technol 2:115–125Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nuria Majaliwa
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Oscar Kibazohi
    • 1
  • Marie Alminger
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Mining EngineeringUniversity of Dar es SalaamDar es SalaamTanzania
  2. 2.Department of Biology and Biological EngineeringChalmers University of TechnologyGöteborgSweden

Personalised recommendations