Advertisement

Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 6, pp 2799–2813 | Cite as

Progress in research and applications of cassava flour and starch: a review

  • Shadrack Mubanga ChisengaEmail author
  • Tilahun Seyoum Workneh
  • Geremew Bultosa
  • Buliyaminu Adegbemiro Alimi
Review Article
  • 203 Downloads

Abstract

The cassava flours and starches have elicited great use in the food and non-food industry. The diversity in cassava genotypes accounts for differences in end-product properties, and would require characterization of cassava varieties for suitability of culinary and processing. This review showed that screening criteria of cassava cultivars end-user properties include proximate contents, amylose content, structural, swelling, gelatinization and pasting characteristics, including freeze–thaw stability properties of cassava-derived flours and starches. Literature shows that the physiochemical properties vary with genetic factors (i.e. genotype). In this review, the amylose content was found to be the main genetic trait for discriminating the cassava varieties for gelatinization and pasting processes including resistant starches. Moreover, cassava derived raw materials (flours and starches) were found to have various application in baking, edible film, syrup, glucose, alcohol, and soups production.

Keywords

Cassava starches Bread Edible film Gelatinization Pasting Resistant starch 

Notes

References

  1. Abdulrahman W, Omoniyi A (2016) Proximate analysis and mineral compositions of different cereals available in gwagwalada market, FCT, Abuja, Nigeria. Adv J Food Sci Technol 3(2):50–55Google Scholar
  2. Abera S, Rakshit SK (2003) Processing technology comparison of physicochemical and functional properties of cassava starch extracted from fresh root and dry chips. Starch-Stärke 55(7):287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abioye V, Adeyemi I, Akinwande B, Kulakow P, Maziya-Dixon B (2017) Effect of steam cooking and storage time on the formation of resistant starch and functional properties of cassava starch. Cogent Food Agric 3(1):1–11Google Scholar
  4. Alcázar-Alay SC, Meireles MAA (2015) Physicochemical properties, modifications and applications of starches from different botanical sources. Food Sci Technol (Campinas) 35(2):215–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bashir K, Swer TL, Prakash KS, Aggarwal M (2017) Physico-chemical and functional properties of gamma irradiated whole wheat flour and starch. LWT-Food Sci Technol 76(Part A):131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bertoft E (2017) Understanding starch structure: recent progress. Agronomy 7(3):56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boonna S, Rolland-Sabaté A, Lourdin D, Tongta S (2019) Macromolecular characteristics and fine structure of amylomaltase-treated cassava starch. Carbohydr Polym 205(1):143–150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Boonpo S, Kungwankunakorn S (2017) Study on amylose iodine complex from cassava starch by colorimetric method. J Adv Agric Technol 4(4):345–349Google Scholar
  9. Bortnowska G, Krudos A, Schube V, Krawczyńska W, Krzemińska N, Mojka K (2016) Effects of waxy rice and tapioca starches on the physicochemical and sensory properties of white sauces enriched with functional fiber. Food Chem 202(4):31–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Charles AL, Chang YH, Ko WC, Sriroth K, Huang TC (2004) Some physical and chemical properties of starch isolates of cassava genotypes. Starch-Stärke 56(9):413–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Charles AL, Chang YH, Ko WC, Sriroth K, Huang TC (2005) Influence of amylopectin structure and amylose content on the gelling properties of five cultivars of cassava starches. J Agric Food Chem 53(7):2717–2725CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Charoenkul N, Uttapap D, Pathipanawat W, Takeda Y (2011) Physicochemical characteristics of starches and flours from cassava varieties having different cooked root textures. LWT-Food Sci Technol 44(8):1774–1781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen L, Tong Q, Ren F, Zhu G (2014) Pasting and rheological properties of rice starch as affected by pullulan. Int J Biol Macromol 66:325–331CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chinma CE, Ariahu CC, Abu JO (2013) Chemical composition, functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends. J Food Sci Technol 50(6):1179–1185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cisneros FH, Zevillanos R, Figueroa M, Gonzalez G, Cisneros-Zevallos L (2018) Characterization of starch from two Andean potatoes: Ccompis (Solanum tuberosum spp. andigena) and Huayro (Solanum x chaucha). Starch-Stärke 70(3–4):1700134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de Souza Fernandes D, dos Santos TPR, Fernandes AM, Leonel M (2019) Harvest time optimization leads to the production of native cassava starches with different properties. Int J Biol Macromol 132(2):710–721CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Demiate IM, Kotovicz V (2011) Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry. Food Sci Technol (Camp) 31(2):388–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Edhirej A, Sapuan SM, Jawaid M, Zahari NI (2017) Effect of various plasticizers and concentration on the physical, thermal, mechanical, and structural properties of cassava-starch-based films. Starch-Stärke 69(1–2):1–11Google Scholar
  19. Eke-Ejiofor J (2015a) Functional properties of starches, physico-chemical and rheological properties of glucose syrup made from cassava and different potato varieties. Int J Recent Sci Res 6(6):4400–4406Google Scholar
  20. Eke-Ejiofor J (2015b) Physico-chemical and pasting properties of starches from cassava, sweet potato and three leaf yam and their application in salad cream production. Int J Biotechnol Food Sci 3(2):23–30Google Scholar
  21. Emmanuel O, Clement A, Agnes S, Chiwona-Karltun L, Drinah B (2012) Chemical composition and cyanogenic potential of traditional and high yielding CMD resistant cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) varieties. Int Food Res J 19(1):175–181Google Scholar
  22. Eriksson E, Koch K, Tortoe C, Akonor P, Baidoo E (2014a) Physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of three varieties of cassava in wheat composite flours. Br J Appl Sci Technol 4(11):1609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eriksson E, Koch K, Tortoe C, Akonor P, Oduro-Yeboah C (2014b) Evaluation of the physical and sensory characteristics of bread produced from three varieties of cassava and wheat composite flours. Food Public Health 4(5):214–222Google Scholar
  24. Flores S, Famá L, Rojas AM, Goyanes S, Gerschenson L (2007) Physical properties of tapioca-starch edible films: influence of filmmaking and potassium sorbate. Food Res Int 40(2):257–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frost JK, Flanagan BM, Brummell DA, O’Donoghue EM, Mishra S, Gidley MJ, Monro JA (2016) Composition and structure of tuber cell walls affect in vitro digestibility of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Food Funct J 7(10):4202–4212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Guimarães GHC, Dantas RL, de Sousa ASB, Soares LG, de Sa Melo R, da Silva RS, Lima RP, Mendonça RMN, Beaudry RM, de Melo Silva S (2017) Impact of cassava starch-alginate based coatings added with ascorbic acid and elicitor on quality and sensory attributes during pineapple storage. Afr J Agric Res 12(9):664–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hernández-Fernández N, Adriano-Anaya L, Salvador-Figueroa M, Betancur-Ancona D, Vázquez-Ovando A (2016) Impact of organic fertilization on physicochemical and functional properties of cassava starch. Starch-Stärke 68(5–6):549–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hong J, Zeng X-A, Buckow R, Han Z, Wang M-s (2016) Nanostructure, morphology and functionality of cassava starch after pulsed electric fields assisted acetylation. Food Hydrocoll 54(Part A (1)):139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Irani M, Abdel-Aal ESM, Razavi SM, Hucl P, Patterson CA (2017) Thermal and functional properties of hairless canary seed (Phalaris canariensis L.) starch in comparison with wheat starch. Cereal Chem 94(2):341–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jin Y, Li JZ, Nik AM (2018) Starch-based microencapsulation. In: Gaonkar A, Vasisht N, Khare AR, Sobel R (eds) Starch in food. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  31. Karwasra BL, Gill BS, Kaur M (2017) Rheological and structural properties of starches from different Indian wheat cultivars and their relationships. Int J Food Prop 20(sup1):S1093–S1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kaur A, Shevkani K, Katyal M, Singh N, Ahlawat AK, Singh AM (2016) Physicochemical and rheological properties of starch and flour from different durum wheat varieties and their relationships with noodle quality. J Food Sci Technol 53(4):2127–2138CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Kechichian V, Ditchfield C, Veiga-Santos P, Tadini CC (2010) Natural antimicrobial ingredients incorporated in biodegradable films based on cassava starch. LWT-Food Sci Technol 43(7):1088–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kumar R, Khatkar B (2017) Thermal, pasting and morphological properties of starch granules of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties. J Food Sci Technol 54(8):2403–2410CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Li W, Gao J, Wu G, Zheng J, Ouyang S, Luo Q, Zhang G (2016) Physicochemical and structural properties of A-and B-starch isolated from normal and waxy wheat: effects of lipids removal. Food Hydrocoll 60(4):364–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Li Y, Li C, Gu Z, Hong Y, Cheng L, Li Z (2017) Effect of modification with 1, 4-α-glucan branching enzyme on the rheological properties of cassava starch. Int J Biol Macromol 103(3):630–639CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Liang Z, Mu T-h, Zhang R-F, Sun Q-H, Xu Y-W (2019) Nutritional evaluation of different cultivars of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) from China by grey relational analysis (GRA) and its application in potato steamed bread making. J Integr Agric 18(1):231–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lii C-Y, Tsai M-L, Tseng K-H (1996) Effect of amylose content on the rheological property of rice starch. Cereal Chem 73(4):415–420Google Scholar
  39. Lin L, Cai C, Gilbert RG, Li E, Wang J, Wei C (2016) Relationships between amylopectin molecular structures and functional properties of different-sized fractions of normal and high-amylose maize starches. Food Hydrocoll 52(1):359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Liu R, Xu C, Cong X, Wu T, Song Y, Zhang M (2017) Effects of oligomeric procyanidins on the retrogradation properties of maize starch with different amylose/amylopectin ratios. Food Chem 221(2):2010–2017CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Liu Y, Yu J, Copeland L, Wang S, Wang S (2019) Gelatinization behavior of starch: reflecting beyond the endotherm measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Food Chem 284(June):53–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Mejía-Agüero LE, Galeno F, Hernández-Hernández O, Matehus J, Tovar J (2012) Starch determination, amylose content and susceptibility to in vitro amylolysis in flours from the roots of 25 cassava varieties. J Sci Food Agric 92(3):673–678CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Morante N, Ceballos H, Sánchez T, Rolland-Sabaté A, Calle F, Hershey C, Gibert O, Dufour D (2016a) Discovery of new spontaneous sources of amylose-free cassava starch and analysis of their structure and techno-functional properties. Food Hydrocoll 56(May):383–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Morante N, Ceballos H, Sánchez T, Rolland-Sabaté A, Calle F, Hershey C, Gibert O, Dufour D (2016b) Discovery of new spontaneous sources of amylose-free cassava starch and analysis of their structure and techno-functional properties. Food Hydrocoll 56(2):383–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Moses MO, Olanrewaju MJ (2018) Evaluation of functional and pasting properties of different corn starch flours. Int J Food Sci Nutr 3(6):95–99Google Scholar
  46. Mtunguja MK, Laswai HS, Kanju E, Ndunguru J, Muzanila YC (2016a) Effect of genotype and genotype by environment interaction on total cyanide content, fresh root, and starch yield in farmer-preferred cassava landraces in Tanzania. Food Sci Nutr 4(6):791–801CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Mtunguja MK, Thitisaksakul M, Muzanila YC, Wansuksri R, Piyachomkwan K, Laswai HS, Chen G, Shoemaker CF, Sinha N, Beckles DM (2016b) Assessing variation in physicochemical, structural, and functional properties of root starches from novel Tanzanian cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) landraces. Starch-Stärke 68(5–6):514–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Muoki PN, Kinnear M, Emmambux MN, de Kock HL (2015) Effect of the addition of soy flour on sensory quality of extrusion and conventionally cooked cassava complementary porridges. J Sci Food Agric 95(4):730–738CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Nair SB, Alummoottil N, Moothandasserry S (2017) Chitosan-konjac glucomannan-cassava starch-nanosilver composite films with moisture resistant and antimicrobial properties for food-packaging applications. Starch-Stärke 69(1–2):1–12Google Scholar
  50. Nand AV, Charan RP, Rohindra D, Khurma JR (2008) Isolation and properties of starch from some local cultivars of cassava and taro in Fiji. S Pac J Nat Sci 26(1):45–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ngobese NZ, Workneh TS (2018) Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) nutritional changes associated with French fry processing: Comparison of low-temperature long-time and high-temperature short-time blanching and frying treatments. LWT-Food Sci Technol 97(5):448–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nuwamanya E, Baguma Y, Emmambux N, Rubaihayo P (2010a) Crystalline and pasting properties of cassava starch are influenced by its molecular properties. Afr J Food Sci 4(1):008–015Google Scholar
  53. Nuwamanya E, Baguma Y, Rubaihayo P (2010b) Physicochemical and functional characteristics of cassava starch in Ugandan varieties and their progenies. J Plant Breed Crop Sci 2(1):001–011Google Scholar
  54. Ocloo F, Ayernor G (2010) Production of alcohol from cassava flour hydrolysate. J Brew Distill 1(2):15–21Google Scholar
  55. Ogunyemi AM, Otegbayo BO, Fagbenro JA (2018) Effects of NPK and biochar fertilized soil on the proximate composition and mineral evaluation of maize flour. Food Sci Nutr 6(8):2308–2313CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Oladunmoye OO, Aworh OC, Maziya‐Dixon B, Erukainure OL, Elemo GN (2014) Chemical and functional properties of cassava starch, durum wheat semolina flour, and their blends. Food Sci Nutr 2(2):132–138CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Oluba OM, Oredokun-Lache AB (2018) Nutritional composition and glycemic index analyses of vitamin A-biofortified maize in healthy subjects. Food Sci Nutr 6(8):2285–2292CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Oluwaniyi OO, Oladipo JO (2017) Comparative studies on the phytochemicals, nutrients and antinutrients content of cassava varieties. J Turk Chem Soc Sect 4(3):661–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Peña C, Restrepo-Sánchez L-P, Kushalappa A, Rodríguez-Molano L-E, Mosquera T, Narváez-Cuenca C-E (2015) Nutritional contents of advanced breeding clones of Solanum tuberosum group Phureja. LWT-Food Sci Technol 62(1):76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pineros-Hernandez D, Medina-Jaramillo C, López-Córdoba A, Goyanes S (2017) Edible cassava starch films carrying rosemary antioxidant extracts for potential use as active food packaging. Food Hydrocoll 63(2):488–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Polesi LF, Sarmento SBS, de Moraes J, Franco CML, Canniatti-Brazaca SG (2016) Physicochemical and structural characteristics of rice starch modified by irradiation. Food Chem 191(1):59–66CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Ramadoss BR, Gangola MP, Agasimani S, Jaiswal S, Venkatesan T, Sundaram GR, Chibbar RN (2019) Starch granule size and amylopectin chain length influence starch in vitro enzymatic digestibility in selected rice mutants with similar amylose concentration. J Food Sci Technol 56(1):391–400CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Rojas CC, Nair B, Herbas A, Bergenståhl B (2007) Proximal composition and mineral contents of six varieties of cassava (Mannihot Esculenta, Crantz), from Bolivia. Rev Boliv Quim 24(1):71–77Google Scholar
  64. Rolland-Sabaté A, Sanchez T, Buléon A, Colonna P, Ceballos H, Zhao S-S, Zhang P, Dufour D (2013) Molecular and supra-molecular structure of waxy starches developed from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Carbohydr Polym 92(2):1451–1462CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Ruiz MI, Sanchez CI, Torrres RG, Molina DR (2011) Enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava starch for production of bioethanol with a Colombian wild yeast strain. J Braz Chem Soc 22(12):2337–2343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sameen A, Niaz A, Anjum F (2002) Chemical composition of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties as affected by NPK doses. Int J Agric Biol 4(4):537–539Google Scholar
  67. Sánchez T, Dufour D, Moreno IX, Ceballos H (2010) Comparison of pasting and gel stabilities of waxy and normal starches from potato, maize, and rice with those of a novel waxy cassava starch under thermal, chemical, and mechanical stress. J Agric Food Chem 58(8):5093–5099CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Sandhu KS, Singh N (2007) Some properties of corn starches II: physicochemical, gelatinization, retrogradation, pasting and gel textural properties. Food Chem 101(4):1499–1507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schmitz GJH, Gonçalves Peroni-Okita FH, Oliveira do Nascimento JR, Campanha RB, Valle TL, Franco CML, Cordenunsi-Lysenko BR (2017) Selected physicochemical properties of starches isolated from ten cassava varieties reveal novel industrial uses. Starch-Stärke 69(6):1–9Google Scholar
  70. Silva RdN, Quintino FP, Monteiro VN, Asquieri ER (2010) Production of glucose and fructose syrups from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) starch using enzymes produced by microorganisms isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil. Food Sci Technol (Camp) 30(1):213–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Singh N, Singh J, Kaur L, Sodhi NS, Gill BS (2003) Morphological, thermal and rheological properties of starches from different botanical sources. Food Chem 81(2):219–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Singh N, Inouchi N, Nishinari K (2006) Structural, thermal and viscoelastic characteristics of starches separated from normal, sugary and waxy maize. Food Hydrocoll 20(6):923–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Singh N, Nakaura Y, Inouchi N, Nishinari K (2007) Fine structure, thermal and viscoelastic properties of starches separated from indica rice cultivars. Starch-Stärke 59(1):10–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Singh N, Isono N, Srichuwong S, Noda T, Nishinari K (2008a) Structural, thermal and viscoelastic properties of potato starches. Food Hydrocoll 22(6):979–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Singh N, Nakaura Y, Inouchi N, Nishinari K (2008b) Structure and viscoelastic properties of starches separated from different legumes. Starch-Stärke 60(7):349–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Singh S, Singh N, Isono N, Noda T (2010) Relationship of granule size distribution and amylopectin structure with pasting, thermal, and retrogradation properties in wheat starch. J Agric Food Chem 58(2):1180–1188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Singh N, Kaur N, Katyal M, Kaur A, Shevkani K (2017) Characteristics of starch separated from coarse and fine flour fractions obtained from hard, medium-hard, and soft Indian wheat cultivars. Starch-Stärke 69(1–2):1–9Google Scholar
  78. Souza AC, Benze R, Ferrão ES, Ditchfield C, Coelho ACV, Tadini CC (2012) Cassava starch biodegradable films: influence of glycerol and clay nanoparticles content on tensile and barrier properties and glass transition temperature. LWT-Food Sci Technol 46(1):110–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tester RF, Karkalas J, Qi X (2004) Starch—composition, fine structure and architecture. J Cereal Sci 39(2):151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Uchechukwu-Agua AD, Caleb OJ, Opara UL (2015) Postharvest handling and storage of fresh cassava root and products: a review. Food Bioprocess Tech 8(4):729–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Uthumporn U, Nadiah I, Izzuddin I, Cheng L, Aida H (2017) Physicochemical characteristics of non-starch polysaccharides extracted from cassava tubers. Sains Malays 46(2):223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Verma R, Jan S, Rani S, Jan K, Swer TL, Prakash KS, Dar M, Bashir K (2018) Physicochemical and functional properties of gamma irradiated buckwheat and potato starch. Radiat Phys Chem 144(3):37–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wang S, Li C, Zhang X, Copeland L, Wang S (2016) Retrogradation enthalpy does not always reflect the retrogradation behavior of gelatinized starch. Sci Rep 6(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wang W, Zhou H, Yang H, Zhao S, Liu Y, Liu R (2017) Effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of maize starch and waxy maize starch. Food Chem 214(1):319–327CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Waterschoot J, Gomand SV, Fierens E, Delcour JA (2015) Production, structure, physicochemical and functional properties of maize, cassava, wheat, potato and rice starches. Starch-Stärke 67(1–2):14–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wongsagonsup R, Pujchakarn T, Jitrakbumrung S, Chaiwat W, Fuongfuchat A, Varavinit S, Dangtip S, Suphantharika M (2014) Effect of cross-linking on physicochemical properties of tapioca starch and its application in soup product. Carbohydr Polym 101(1):656–665CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Wu Y, Chen Z, Li X, Wang Z (2010) Retrogradation properties of high amylose rice flour and rice starch by physical modification. LWT-Food Sci Technol 43(3):492–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yadav RB, Kumar N, Yadav BS (2016) Characterization of banana, potato, and rice starch blends for their physicochemical and pasting properties. Cogent Food Agric 2(1):1–12Google Scholar
  89. Zeng M, Morris CF, Batey IL, Wrigley CW (1997) Sources of variation for starch gelatinization, pasting, and gelation properties in wheat. Cereal Chem 74(1):63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zhang X, Tong Q, Zhu W, Ren F (2013a) Pasting, rheological properties and gelatinization kinetics of tapioca starch with sucrose or glucose. J Food Eng 114(2):255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhang Y, Huang Z, Yang C, Huang A, Hu H, Gong Z, Sun G, Huang K (2013b) Material properties of partially pregelatinized cassava starch prepared by mechanical activation. Starch-Stärke 65(5–6):461–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zhao Y, Saldaña MD (2019) Hydrolysis of cassava starch, chitosan and their mixtures in pressurized hot water media. J Supercrit Fluids 147(3):293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zhao Y, Li N, Li B, Li Z, Xie G, Zhang J (2015) Reduced expression of starch branching enzyme IIa and IIb in maize endosperm by RNAi constructs greatly increases the amylose content in kernel with nearly normal morphology. Planta 241(2):449–461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Zhu F (2015) Composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and modifications of cassava starch. Carbohydr Polym 122(2):456–480CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Bioresources EngineeringUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalPietermaritzburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and TechnologyBotswana University of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesGaboroneBotswana

Personalised recommendations