Flavonoids in common and tartary buckwheat hull extracts and antioxidant activity of the extracts against lipids in mayonnaise

  • Bom I. Park
  • Jaecheol Kim
  • Kiuk Lee
  • Taehwan Lim
  • Keum Taek HwangEmail author
Original Article


Buckwheat hulls, generally discarded as waste, have been known to possess various flavonoids and high antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to determine effect of extracting solvents [water, ethanol (20%, 50%, 80%, and 100%), methanol, and acetone] on total phenolic content, flavonoid content and composition, and antioxidant activities of common and tartary buckwheat hull extracts. Antioxidative effect of common and tartary buckwheat hull extracts on lipids in mayonnaise was also investigated. Vitexin, isovitexin, isoorientin, orientin, rutin, isoquercetin, and quercetin were identified in the common buckwheat hull extracts, while rutin, quercetin, isoorientin, and isoquercetin were in the tartary buckwheat hull extracts. The methanol and 80% ethanol extracts had more flavonoids than the others, while the aqueous ethanol extracts from both of the hulls had more total phenolics and antioxidant activities. Oxidative stability of lipids in mayonnaises added with common and tartary buckwheat hull extracts (0.02 and 0.08%, w/w) prepared by 50% ethanol were higher than that in the mayonnaise with butylated hydroxytoluene (0.02%) and control. Oxidative stability was not significantly different between the mayonnaises added with the two buckwheat hull extracts.


Antioxidant activity Buckwheat hull Flavonoid Phenolic compound Mayonnaise 



This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Authors’ contributions

BIP conceived and designed the study and KTH organized the whole research outline. All experimental works were conducted and the manuscript was written by BIP. JK assisted extraction of buckwheat hull extracts and HPLC–UV analysis. KL offered scientific advices on the LC–MS. TL offered scientific advices on mayonnaise oxidation study. Manuscript drafting was corrected by KTH and BIP. All authors have approved and reviewed the final manuscript.


  1. Altunkaya A, Hedegaard RV, Harholt J, Brimer L, Gökmen V, Skibsted LH (2013) Oxidative stability and chemical safety of mayonnaise enriched with grape seed extract. Food Funct 4:1647–1653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AOCS (2009) Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. AOCS Press, UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhinder S, Singh B, Kaur A, Singh N, Kaur M, Kumari S, Yadav MP (2019) Effect of infrared roasting on antioxidant activity, phenolic composition and Maillard reaction products of tartary buckwheat varieties. Food Chem 285:240–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borghi SM, Carvalho TT, Staurengo-Ferrari L, Hohmann MS, Pinge-Filho P, Casagrande R, Verri WA Jr (2013) Vitexin inhibits inflammatory pain in mice by targeting TRPV1, oxidative stress, and cytokines. J Nat Prod 76:1141–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C (1995) Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Sci Technol 28:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choi HJ, Eun JS, Kim BG, Kim SY, Jeon H, Soh Y (2006) Vitexin, an HIF-1α inhibitor, has anti-metastatic potential in PC12 Cells. Mol Cells 22:291–299Google Scholar
  7. Dziadek K, Kopeć A, Pastucha E, Piątkowska E, Leszczyńska T, Pisulewska E, Witkowicz R, Francik R (2016) Basic chemical composition and bioactive compounds content in selected cultivars of buckwheat whole seeds, dehulled seeds and hulls. J Cereal Sci 69:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Galanakis CM, Goulas V, Tsakona S, Manganaris GA, Gekas V (2013) A knowledge base for the recovery of natural phenols with different solvents. Int J Food Prop 16:382–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gorji SG, Smyth HE, Sharma M, Fitzgerald M (2016) Lipid oxidation in mayonnaise and the role of natural antioxidants: a review. Trends Food Sci Technol 56:88–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Guo XD, Wu CS, Ma YJ, Parry J, Xu YY, Liu H, Wang M (2012) Comparison of milling fractions of tartary buckwheat for their phenolics and antioxidant properties. Food Res Int 49:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Holasova M, Fiedlerova V, Smrcinova H, Orsak M, Lachman J, Vavreinova S (2002) Buckwheat—the source of antioxidant activity in functional foods. Food Res Int 35:207–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim YS, Lee JH (2017) Effects of hydrolyzed rapeseed cake extract on the quality characteristics of mayonnaise dressing. J Food Sci 82:2847–2856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kim JH, Lee BC, Kim JH, Sim GS, Lee DH, Lee KE, Yun YP, Pyo HB (2005) The isolation and antioxidative effects of vitexin from Acer palmatum. Arch Pharm Res 28:195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Krahl M, Back W, Zarnkow M, Kreisz S (2008) Determination of optimised malting conditions for the enrichment of rutin, vitexin and orientin in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). J Inst Brew 114:294–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kumar S, Pandey AK (2013) Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview. Sci World J 2013:1–16Google Scholar
  16. Lagunes-Galvez L, Cuvelier ME, Ordonnaud C, Berset C (2002) Oxidative stability of some mayonnaise formulations during storage and daylight irradiation. J Food Lipids 9:211–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lapornik B, Prošek M, Wondra AG (2005) Comparison of extracts prepared from plant by-products using different solvents and extraction time. J Food Eng 71:214–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee LS, Choi EJ, Kim CH, Sung JM, Kim YB, Seo DH, Choi HW, Choi YS, Kum JS, Park JD (2016) Contribution of flavonoids to the antioxidant properties of common and tartary buckwheat. J Cereal Sci 68:181–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li CY, Kim HW, Li H, Lee DC, Rhee HI (2014) Antioxidative effect of purple corn extracts during storage of mayonnaise. Food Chem 152:592–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu Q, Yao H (2007) Antioxidant activities of barley seeds extracts. Food Chem 102:732–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lu L, Murphy K, Baik BK (2013) Genotypic variation in nutritional composition of buckwheat groats and husks. Cereal Chem 90:132–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C (1999) Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 26:1231–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sedej I, Sakač M, Mandić A, Mišan A, Tumbas V, Čanadanović-Brunet J (2012) Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) grain and fractions: antioxidant compounds and activities. J Food Sci 77:C954–C959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sherwin ER (1978) Oxidation and antioxidants in fat and oil processing. J Am Oil Chem Soc 55:809–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Singh B, Singh N, Thakur S, Kaur A (2017) Ultrasound assisted extraction of polyphenols and their distribution in whole mung bean, hull and cotyledon. J Food Sci Technol 54:921–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventós RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 299:152–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tananuwong K, Tewaruth W (2010) Extraction and application of antioxidants from black glutinous rice. LWT-Food Sci Technol 43:476–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Vasantha Rupasinghe HP, Kathirvel P, Huber GM (2011) Ultrasonication-assisted solvent extraction of quercetin glycosides from ‘Idared’ apple peels. Molecules 16:9783–9791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vrinda B, Devi PU (2001) Radiation protection of human lymphocyte chromosomes in vitro by orientin and vicenin. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 498:39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vuong QV, Hirun S, Roach PD, Bowyer MC, Phillips PA, Scarlett CJ (2013) Effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of Carica papaya leaf aqueous extracts. J Herb Med 3:104–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yi BR, Ka HJ, Kwon YJ, Choi HS, Kim SH, Kim J, Lee MJ (2017) Oxidative stability in oil-in-water emulsions with quercetin or rutin under iron catalysis or riboflavin photosensitization. J Food Sci 82:890–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yilmaz Y, Toledo RT (2006) Oxygen radical absorbance capacities of grape/wine industry byproducts and effect of solvent type on extraction of grape seed polyphenols. J Food Compos Anal 19:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yuan L, Wang J, Xiao H, Xiao C, Wang Y, Liu X (2012) Isoorientin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HepG2 cancer cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 265:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhang R, Yao Y, Wang Y, Ren G (2011) Antidiabetic activity of isoquercetin in diabetic KK-Ay mice. Nutr Metab 8:85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang ZL, Zhou ML, Tang Y, Li FL, Tang YX, Shao JR, Xue WT, Wu YM (2012) Bioactive compounds in functional buckwheat food. Food Res Int 49:389–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhang W, Zhu Y, Liu Q, Bao J, Liu Q (2017) Identification and quantification of polyphenols in hull, bran and endosperm of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds. J Funct Food 38:363–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food and Nutrition, and Research Institute of Human EcologySeoul National UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations