Extraction of bioactive compounds from mango (Mangifera indica L. var. Carabao) seed kernel with ethanol–water binary solvent systems

  • Kramer Joseph A. Lim
  • Alden A. Cabajar
  • Camila Flor Y. LobarbioEmail author
  • Evelyn B. Taboada
  • Daniel J. Lacks
Original Article


Mango seed kernel, a by-product of the processing industry, can be valorized as a potential source of bioactive compounds. Binary mixtures of ethanol and water, used in solid–liquid extraction (SLE), have drawn interest as an effective means of recovering phytochemicals from plant materials because these solvents can be used in food applications and their synergistic effect makes them a superior solvent over their pure counterparts. Total phenolic content (TPC) and HPLC chromatograms of each ethanolic extract revealed that ethanol concentration had a significant effect on phenolic compound recovery, wherein, TPC of mango kernel varied from 18.19 to 101.68 mg gallic acid equivalence (GAE) per gram of sample. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities (AOAc) of the extracts, measured by scavenging activities with the DPPH+ (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, ranged from 8.19 to 85.45 mmol/L and 3.82–55.61 mmol/L Trolox equivalence, respectively. The solvent containing 50% (w/w) ethanol–water had the highest TPC and exhibited the most potent reducing and radical scavenging activities. With the use of an HPLC–UV/Vis, gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin and penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose were identified to be present in the mango seed kernel. Results show that the mango seed kernel is a viable source of bioactive compounds which can be recovered with water–ethanol binary solvent systems.


Mango seed kernel Solid–liquid extraction Bioactive compounds Total phenolic content Antioxidant activity Mangifera indica L. var. Carabao 



K. J. A. Lim would like to thank USAID-STRIDE for awarding the Ph.D. dissertation scholarship grant that supported the completion of this work. Likewise, the Philippine Engineering Research and Development for Technology (ERDT) Program is acknowledged for the doctoral scholarship grant of K. J. A. Lim. Special gratitude is extended to Dr. James Faulk for the assistance in HPLC–UV/Vis Analyses.

Supplementary material

13197_2019_3732_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (241 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 242 kb)


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kramer Joseph A. Lim
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Alden A. Cabajar
    • 2
  • Camila Flor Y. Lobarbio
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Evelyn B. Taboada
    • 1
    • 2
  • Daniel J. Lacks
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of San CarlosCebu CityPhilippines
  2. 2.BioProcess Engineering and Research Center, Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of San CarlosCebu CityPhilippines
  3. 3.Department of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

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