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Development of a functional food (pan bread) using amla fruit powder

  • Dina Alkandari
  • Humaira Sarfraz
  • Jiwan S. SidhuEmail author
Original Article
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Abstract

The amla fruit powders were analyzed for ascorbic acid, sugars, pectin, total phenolics (TPC), and total antioxidant activities (TEAC). Fresh amla was found to have 6644.305 mg/100 g ascorbic acid with sun-dried, oven-dried and freeze-dried having 748.427 mg/100 g, 641.364 mg/100 g, 791.233 mg/100 g, respectively. There were no significant differences for the TPC values which ranged from 113.1 for oven-dried (OD), 128.7 for sun-dried (SD), 161.2 mg for freeze-dried (FD) and 1410.5 GAE/g for fresh amla pulp (FA). The TEAC values ranged from 6.6 for OD, 6.8 for FD, 7.6 for SD and 116.4 mM/g for FA. The FD amla fruit powder had the highest total sugars (36.94%, db). The specific loaf volume of bread improved significantly (from 3.54 to 3.79 cc/g) as the level of SD or OD amla powder addition was raised to 0.25% but then decreased at higher level of addition (3.41 cc/g). However, in case of FD amla powder, the bread volume increased up to the addition level of 0.50% (4.09) then decreased slightly (3.95 cc/g) but was still significantly higher the SD and OD amla powders. Similarly, the TPC (from 0.32 to 1.16 mg GAE/g, db), TEAC (0.06–0.14 mM/g, db) and vitamin C (3.80–31.98 mg/100 g, db) contents also improved significantly as the level of amla powders were increased to 1%. The supplemented breads were well-accepted by the consumers. It can be concluded that amla supplemented pan bread with its superior nutritional and sensory qualities can be a possibility to improve consumer nutrition.

Keywords

Amla fruit Phenolics Antioxidant activity Bread Specific loaf volume Sugars Ascorbic acid 

Notes

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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dina Alkandari
    • 1
  • Humaira Sarfraz
    • 1
  • Jiwan S. Sidhu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Life SciencesKuwait UniversitySafatKuwait

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