Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 1631–1640 | Cite as

Comparison of volatile compositions of 15 different varieties of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)

  • Lina WangEmail author
  • Yaqi Wang
  • Weizheng Wang
  • Fuping Zheng
  • Feng ChenEmail author
Original Article


Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) extract has been commonly used as a flavoring ingredient due to its unique aroma. In this study, solid phase micro extraction method was used to extract the volatile compounds in fresh jujube, with the aid of GC–MS for further chemical separation and identification. As a result, 33 volatile compounds, including aldehydes, alcohols, acids, ketones and esters, were identified. Among them, hexanal (276.5–1314 μg/100 g FW), (E)-2-hexanal, (145.1–1876 μg/100 g FW), nonanal (188.2–1047 μg/100 g FW), and n-decanoic acid (58.42–1268 μg/100 g FW) were found to be the major volatile compounds in fresh jujube fruit. Based on the type and amounts of the volatile compounds, 15 Chinese jujube cultivars were divided into 5 clusters through hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). Fiver clusters include cluster 1 (LB, HP, LZ, NP, JS, PZ, and YL), cluster 2 (BJ, DB), cluster 3 (PB, BZ, JD and XZ), cluster 4 (JB) and cluster 5 (YZ). According to the PCA, the clusters 1, 2 and 3 could not be discriminated from each other, but clusters 4 and 5 could be separated very well from each other.


Jujube Volatile compounds SPME Hierarchical cluster analysis Principal component analysis 



Fresh weight


Solid phase micro extraction


Liquid–liquid extraction


Simultaneous distillation and extraction


Ultrasound-assisted extraction


Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry


Principle component analysis


Hierarchical cluster analysis


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

13197_2019_3689_MOESM1_ESM.docx (149 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 149 kb)


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human HealthBeijing Technology and Business UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Food, Nutrition and Packaging SciencesClemson UniversityClemsonUSA

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