Advertisement

Physical and chemical characteristics of different cultivars of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis)

  • Rishika TewariEmail author
  • Vivek Kumar
  • H. K. Sharma
Short Communication
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis) commonly known as amla is one of the important fruit of Ayurveda. Nutritional and medicinal properties of amla make it a well known fruit. It is an excellent source of vitamin C, phytochemicals and minerals. Several cultivars of amla are grown throughout different parts of India. Physical characteristics are imperative for designing the equipments for processing, handling and storage. Processing of fruit into value added products is governed by chemical composition of fruit. The current work was aimed to examine the various physical and chemical characteristics of fruits of six cultivars viz. NA-7, NA-9, NA-10, Chakaiya, Balwant and Hathijhool. Characteristics namely height, diameter, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area, aspect ratio, volume, density, rolling resistance, color, textural characteristics, proximate composition, ascorbic acid and polyphenol content was studied. Results showed that the highest fruit size was obtained in NA-7 and the lowest in Hathijhool cultivars while the highest density in Hathijhool and lowest in NA-10 cultivar. The fruit volume of different cultivars varied from 15.00 to 44.93 cm3. Moisture content was highest in Chakaiya followed by NA-7 cultivar. No significant difference was observed in surface hardness and moisture content of the fruit of different cultivars. The highest ascorbic acid and polyphenols content were found in Chakaiya cultivar. In the different cultivars, ash content ranged between 2.08 and 2.97% and NA-10 cultivar had the highest value followed by Chakaiya cultivar.

Keywords

Physical Chemical Characteristics Indian gooseberry Principal component analysis 

Notes

References

  1. Alonge AF, Adigun YJ (1999) Some physical and aerodynamic properties of sorghum as related to cleaning. Paper presented at the 21st annual conference of the Nigerian Society of Agricultural Engineers (NSAE), Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, NigeriaGoogle Scholar
  2. AOAC (2005) Official methods of analysis, 18th edn, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Maryland, USAGoogle Scholar
  3. Aydın C, Özcan M (2002) Some physico-mechanical properties of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) fruits. J Food Eng 53:97–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baliga MS, D’souza JJ (2011) Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), a wonder berry in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 20:225–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barthakur NN, Arnold NP (1991) Chemical analysis of the emblic (Phyllanthus emblica L.) and its potential as a food source. Sci Hortic 47:99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beyer M, Hahn R, Peschel S, Harz M, Knoche B (2002) Analyzing fruit shape in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Sci Hort 96:139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ercisli S, Orhan E, Ozdemir O, Sengul M (2007) The genotypic effects on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries grown in Turkey. Sci Hort 115:27–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ganachari A, Thangavel K, Ali SM, Ananthacharya UN (2010) Physical properties of aonla fruit relevant to the design of processing equipments. Int J Eng Sci Technol 2:7562–7566Google Scholar
  9. Goyal RK, Kingsly ARP, Kumar P, Walia H (2007) Physical and mechanical properties of aonla fruits. J Food Eng 82:595–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ingale VM, More HG, Kad VP (2016) Determination of engineering properties of aonla (Phyllanthus emblica L or Emblica officinalis G) fruits. J Krishi Vigyan 4:12–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jahromi MK, Mohtasebi SS, Jafari ARM, Rafiee S (2008) Determination of some physical properties of date fruit (cv. Mazafati). J Agric Technol 4:1–9Google Scholar
  12. Jha SK, Sethi S, Srivastav M, Dubby AK, Sharma RR, Samuel DVK, Singh AK (2010) Firmness characteristics of mango hybrids under ambient storage. J Food Eng 97:208–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Karababa E (2006) Physical properties of popcorn kernels. J Food Eng 72:100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khan KH (2009) Roles of Emblica officinalis in medicine—a review. Bot Res Int 2:218–228Google Scholar
  15. Kulkarani P, Pandey H, Sharma AK, Joshi DC (2017) Physicochemical properties of aonla fruit and juice. Chem Sci Rev Lett 6:1343–1347Google Scholar
  16. Kumar JS, Manjunath S, Sakhare PM (2013) A study of antihyperlipedemia, hypolipedemic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis (amla) in high fat fed Albino rat. Int J Med Res Health Sci 2:70–77Google Scholar
  17. Li Z, Li P, Liu J (2011) Physical and mechanical properties of tomato fruits as related to robot’s harvesting. J Food Eng 103:170–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Minitab statistical software, 18.0 version Minitab Inc. State College, PA, USAGoogle Scholar
  19. Mohsenin NN (1986) Physical properties of plant and animal materials: structure, physical characteristics and mechanical properties. Gordon and Breach Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Murthy ZVP, Joshi D (2007) Fluidized bed drying of Aonla (Emblica officinalis). Dry Technol 25:883–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Naderiboldaji M, Khadivi A, Tabatabaefar A, Ghasemi Varnamkhasti M, Zamani Z (2008) Some physical properties of sweet cherry fruit. Am-Eurasian J Agric Environ Sci 3:513–520Google Scholar
  22. NHB, National Horticulture Board (2016) Production statistics. http://nhb.gov.in/Statistics.aspx?enc=WkegdyuHokljEtehnJoq0KWLU79sOQCy+W4MfOk01GFOWQSEvtp9tNHHoiv3p49g. Accessed 19 July 2018
  23. Omobuwajo TO, Sanni LA, Olajide JO (2000) Physical properties of ackee apple (Blighia sapida) seeds. J Food Eng 45:43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Oyelade OJ, Odugbenro PO, Abioye AO, Raji NL (2005) Some physical properties of African star apple (Chrysophyllum alibidum) seeds. J Food Eng 67:435–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Parveen K, Khatkar BS (2015) Physico-chemical properties and nutritional composition of aonla (Emblica officinalis) varieties. Int Food Res J 22(6):2358–2363Google Scholar
  26. Rahman MS (1995) Food properties handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Schmidt H, Vittrup Christensen J, Watkins R, Smith RA (1995) Cherry descriptors. ECSC, EEC, EAEC, Brussels, Lux and International Board. Plant Genome Research, Rome, Italy, p 23Google Scholar
  28. Singh S, Singh AK, Joshi HK (2006) Standardization of maturity indices in Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) under semi-arid conditions of Gujarat. Indian J Agric Sci 76:591–595Google Scholar
  29. Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamucla-Raventos RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidative substrates and antioxidant by means of Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. Methods Enzymol 299:152–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wills RHH, Mc Glasson WB, Graham D, Lee TH, Hall EG (1989) Postharvest: an introduction to the physiology and handling of fruit and vegetables, 3rd edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biochemical Engineering and Food Technology DepartmentHarcourt Butler Technological InstituteKanpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Food Engineering and TechnologySant Longowal Institute of Engineering and TechnologyLongowalIndia

Personalised recommendations