Advertisement

Cow milk enriched with nanoencapsulated phenolic extract of jaboticaba (Plinia peruviana)

  • Gaetano Di Maio
  • Paola Pittia
  • Letícia Mazzarino
  • Marcelo Maraschin
  • Shirley KuhnenEmail author
Original Article
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

This study evaluated the total phenolic content (TPC) and the antioxidant activity (AA) of cow’s milk enriched with phenolic compounds extracted from jaboticaba peel, either by adding jaboticaba crude extract or a jaboticaba-loaded nanoemulsion. Three nanoemulsions with 5, 10 and 15% of jaboticaba extract were prepared. Average particle diameter (166.7–181.7 nm), polydispersity index (0.138–0.156) and zeta potential (ranging from − 35.30 to − 38.60 mV) were measured for the three different colloidal systems. The nanoemulsion with 15% of jaboticaba extract (J15-NE) was chosen for milk enrichment. J15-NE showed an encapsulation efficiency of 85.6% and remained stable for 60 days at 8 °C. Transmission electron microscopy of J15-NE displayed nanoparticles with a well-defined spherical shape. Reference milk, milk enriched with jaboticaba extract and milk enriched with J15-NE were characterised by a TPC of 93, 171 and 161 µg/ml GAE (gallic acid equivalent), respectively, and an AA of 0.04, 0.17 and 0.14 µg/ml TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity), respectively. Thus, this study showed that nanoemulsion with jaboticaba peel extract could be exploited as an ingredient to enrich the properties of milk.

Keywords

Plinia peruviana Phenolic compounds Antioxidant activity Cow’s milk Nanoemulsion High-pressure homogenisation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by CNPq (National Council on Scientific and Technological Development; Brasília, Brazil) through Project No. 402539/2013-3, Edital 29/2013.

References

  1. Abe LT, Lajolo FM, Genovese MI (2012) Potential dietary sources of ellagic acid and other antioxidants among fruits consumed in Brazil: Jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) Berg). J Sci Food Agric 92:1679–1687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayala-Zavala J, Rosas-Domınguez C, Vega-Vega V, Gonzalez-Aguilar G (2010) Antioxidant enrichment and antimicrobial protection of fresh-cut fruits using their own byproducts: looking for integral exploitation. J Food Sci 75:R175–R181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailão EF, Devilla IA, da Conceicao EC, Borges LL (2015) Bioactive compounds found in Brazilian cerrado fruits. Int J Mol Sci 16:23760–23783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beckman CH (2000) Phenolic-storing cells: keys to programmed cell death and periderm formation in wilt disease resistance and in general defence responses in plants? Physiol Mol Plant Path 57:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borges LL, Conceição EC, Silveira D (2014) Active compounds and medicinal properties of Myrciaria genus. Food Chem 153:224–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Branciari R, Ranucci D, Trabalza-Marinucci M, Codini M, Orru M, Ortenzi R, Forte C, Ceccarini MR, Valiani A (2014) Evaluation of the antioxidant properties and oxidative stability of Pecorino cheese made from the raw milk of ewes fed Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves. Int J Food Sci Technol 50:558–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bravo L (1998) Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutr Rev 56:317–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Corrêa VG, Tureck C, Locateli G, Peralta RM, Koehnlein EA (2015) Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population. Rev Nutr 28:185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dai J, Gupte A, Gates L, Mumper RJ (2009) A comprehensive study of anthocyanin-containing extracts from selected blackberry cultivars: extraction methods, stability, anticancer properties and mechanisms. Food Chem Toxicol 47:837–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Denardin CC, Hirsch GE, da Rocha RF, Vizzotto M, Henriques AT, Moreira JCF, Guma FTCR, Emanuelli T (2015) Antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds of four Brazilian native fruits. J Food Drug Anal 23:387–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Di Mattia CD, Sacchetti G, Mastrocola D, Pittia P (2009) Effect of phenolic antioxidants on the dispersion state and chemical stability of olive oil O/W emulsions. Food Res Int 42:1163–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Di Mattia CD, Sacchetti G, Pittia P (2011) Interfacial behavior and antioxidant efficiency of olive phenolic compounds in O/W olive oil emulsions as affected by surface active agent type. Food Biophys 6:295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frankel EN, Huang S-W, Prior E, Aeschbach R (1996) Evaluation of antioxidant activity of rosemary extracts, carnosol and carnosic acid in bulk vegetable oils and fish oil and their emulsions. J Sci Food Agric 72:201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fu L, Xu BT, Xu XR, Gan RY, Zhang Y, Xia EQ, Li HB (2011) Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of 62 fruits. Food Chem 129:345–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gupta A, Eral HB, Hatton TA, Doyle PS (2016) Nanoemulsions: formation, properties and applications. Soft Matter 12:2826–2841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gurak PD, De Bona GS, Tessaro IC, Marczak LDF (2014) Jaboticaba pomace powder obtained as a co-product of juice extraction: a comparative study of powder obtained from peel and whole fruit. Food Res Int 62:786–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Han J, Britten M, St-Gelais D, Champagne CP, Fustier P, Salmieri S, Lacroix M (2011) Polyphenolic compounds as functional ingredients in cheese. Food Chem 124:1589–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hasler CM (1998) Functional foods: their role in disease prevention and health promotion. Food Technol 52:57–62Google Scholar
  19. Hilario MC, Puga CD, Ocana AN, Romo FPG (2010) Antioxidant activity, bioactive polyphenols in Mexican goats’ milk cheeses on summer grazing. J Dairy Res 77:20–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hoikkala A, Mustonen E, Saastamoinen I, Jokela T, Taponen J, Saloniemi H, Wähälä K (2007) High levels of equol in organic skimmed Finnish cow milk. Mol Nutr Food Res 51:782–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huang Q, Yu H, Ru Q (2010) Bioavailability and delivery of nutraceuticals using nanotechnology. J Food Sci 75:R50–R57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Izquierdo P, Feng J, Esquena J, Tadros TF, Dederen JC, Garcia MJ, Azemar N, Solans C (2005) The influence of surfactant mixing ratio on nano-emulsion formation by the pit method. J Colloid Interface Sci 285:388–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Janeiro P, Oliveira-Brett AM (2004) Catechin electrochemical oxidation mechanisms. Anal Chim Acta 518:109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Joung HJ, Choi MJ, Kim JT, Park SH, Park HJ, Shin GH (2016) Development of food-grade curcumin nanoemulsion and its potential application to food beverage system: antioxidant property and in vitro digestion. J Food Sci 81:N745–N753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. King RA, Mano MM, Head RJ (1998) Assessment of isoflavonoid concentrations in Australian bovine milk samples. J Dairy Res 65:479–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kuhnen S, Moacyr JR, Mayer JK, Navarro BB, Trevisan R, Honorato LA, Maraschin M, Pinheiro Machado Filho LC (2014) Phenolic content and ferric reducing-antioxidant power of cow’s milk produced in different pasture-based production systems in southern Brazil. J Sci Food Agric 94:3110–3117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Leite-Legatti AV, Batista AG, Dragano NRV, Marques AC, Malta LG, Riccio MF, Eberlin MN, Machado ART, Carvalho-Silva LB, Ruiz ALTG, Carvalho JE, Pastore GM, Júnior MRM (2012) Jaboticaba peel: antioxidant compounds, antiproliferative and antimutagenic activities. Food Res Int 49:596–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Manach C, Williamson G, Morand C, Scalbert A, Rémésy C (2005) Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81:230S–242SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mazzarino L, da Silva PH, Lorenzen Voytena AP, Dias Trevisan AC, Ribeiro-Do-Valle RM, Maraschin M (2017) Jaboticaba (Plinia peruviana) extract nanoemulsions: development, stability, and in vitro antioxidant activity. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 29:1–9Google Scholar
  30. McClements DJ (2002) Colloidal basis of emulsion color. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 7:451–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McClements DJ, Decker EA (2000) Lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions: impact of molecular environment on chemical reactions in heterogeneous food systems. J Food Sci 8:1270–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mustonen EA, Tuori M, Saastamoinen I, Taponen J, Wähälä K, Saloniemi H, Vanhatalo A (2009) Equol in milk of dairy cows is derived from forage legumes such as red clover. Br J Nutr 102:1552–1556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ness AR, Powles JW (1997) Fruit and vegetables, and cardiovascular disease: a review. Int J Epidemiol 26:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. O’Connell JE, Fox PF (2001) Significance and applications of phenolic compounds in the production and quality of milk and dairy products: a review. Int Dairy J 11:103–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ovaskainen ML, Törrönen R, Koponen JM, Sinkko H, Hellström J, Reinivuo H, Mattila P (2008) Dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in Finnish adults. J Nutr 138:562–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pandey KB, Rizvi SI (2009) Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2:270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pang G, Xie J, Chen Q, Hu J (2012) How functional foods play critical roles in human health. Food Sci Hum Wellness 1:26–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Patel VR, Agrawal YK (2011) Nanosuspension: an approach to enhance solubility of drugs. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pérez-Jiménez J, Fezeu L, Touvier M, Arnault N, Manach C, Hercberg S, Galan P, Scalbert A (2011) Dietary intake of 337 polyphenols in French adults. Am J Clin Nutr 93:1220–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Polychniatou V, Tzia C (2016) Study of the emulsifying ability of olive oil endogenous compounds in co-surfactant free olive oil w/o nanoemulsions with food grade non-ionic surfactants. Food Bioprocess Technol 9:882–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rashidinejad A, Birch EJ, Sun-Waterhouse D, Everett DW (2014) Delivery of green tea catechin and epigallocatechin gallate in liposomes incorporated into low-fat hard cheese. Food Chem 156:176–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Reynertson KA (2007) Phytochemical analysis of bioactive constituents from edible Myrtaceae fruits. Thesis-Graduate Faculty in Biology—City University of New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Reynertson KA, Wallace AM, Adachi S, Gil RR, Yang H, Basile MJ, D’Armiento J, Weinstein IB, Kennelly EJ (2006) Bioactive depsides and anthocyanins from jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora). J Nat Prod 69:1228–1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Richards MP, Chaiyasit W, McClements DJ, Decker EA (2002) Ability of surfactant micelles to alter the partitioning of phenolic antioxidants in oil-in-water emulsions. J Agric Food Chem 50:1254–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rufino MSR, Alves RE, de Brito ES, Pérez-Jiménez J, Saura-Calixto F, Mancini-Filho J (2010) Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities of 18 non-traditional tropical fruits from Brazil. Food Chem 121:996–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Santos NW, Santos GTD, Silva-Kazama DC, Grande PA, De Marchi FE, Jobim CC, Petit HV (2014) Production, composition and antioxidants in milk of dairy cows fed diets containing soybean oil and grape residue silage. Livest Sci 159:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Scalbert A, Williamson G (2000) Dietary intake and bioavailability of polyphenols. J Nutr 130:2073S–2085SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Servili M, Esposto S, Fabiani R, Urbani S, Taticchi A, Mariucci F, Selvaggini R, Montedoro GF (2009) Phenolic compounds in olive oil: antioxidant, health and organoleptic activities according to their chemical structure. Inflammopharmacology 17:76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Servili M, Rizzello CG, Taticchi A, Esposto S, Urbani S, Mazzacane F, Di Maio I, Gobbetti M, Di Cagno R (2011) Functional milk beverage fortified with phenolic compounds extracted from olive vegetation water, and fermented with functional lactic acid bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 147:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shahidi F (2009) Nutraceuticals and functional foods: whole versus processed foods. Trends Food Sci Technol 20:376–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sharma OP, Bhat TK (2009) DPPH antioxidant assay revisited. Food Chem 113:1202–1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Silva GJF, Figueiredo RW, Moura SM (2010) Formulação e estabilidade de corantes de antocianinas extraídas das casas de jabuticaba (Myrciaria ssp.). Alim Nutr Araraquara 21:429–436Google Scholar
  53. Singleton VL, Rossi JA (1965) Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. J Enol Vitic 16:144–158Google Scholar
  54. Souza ACP, Gurak PD, Marczak LDF (2017) Maltodextrin, pectin and soy protein isolate as carrier agents in the encapsulation of anthocyanins-rich extract from jaboticaba pomace. Food Bioprod Process 102:186–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Steinmetz KA, Potter JD (1996) Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc 96:1027–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sutradhar KB, Amin L (2013) Nanoemulsions: increasing possibilities in drug delivery. Eur J Nanomed 5:97–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tresserra-Rimbau A, Medina-Remón A, PérezJiménez J, Martínez-González MA, Covas MI, Corella D, Salas-Salvado J, Gómez-Gracia E, Lapetra J, Arós F, Fiol M, Ros E, Serra-Majem L, Pintó X, Muñoz MA, Saez GT, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Warnberg J, Estruch R, Lamuela-Raventós RM (2013) Dietary intake and major food sources of polyphenols in a Spanish population at high cardiovascular risk: the PREDIMED study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23:953–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wrolstad RE, Durst RW, Lee J (2005) Tracking color and pigment changes in anthocyanin products. Trends Food Sci Technol 16:423–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yilmaz Y (2006) Novel uses of catechins in foods. Trends Food Sci Technol 17:64–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaetano Di Maio
    • 1
  • Paola Pittia
    • 1
  • Letícia Mazzarino
    • 2
  • Marcelo Maraschin
    • 2
  • Shirley Kuhnen
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and EnvironmentUniversity of TeramoTeramoItaly
  2. 2.NanoBioMat LaboratoryFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratório de Bioquímica e Morfofisiologia Animal - LABIMAFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil

Personalised recommendations