Effect of fermentation on water mobility and distribution in fermented cornmeal using LF-NMR and its correlation with substrate

  • Shuang Yang
  • Jingsheng LiuEmail author
  • Mingzhu Zheng
  • Chengbin Zhao
  • Yong Cao
  • Yanjiao Dong
  • Sanabil Yaqoob
  • Yu Xiao
  • Xiuying Xu
Original Article


Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) was utilized to ferment cornmeal by solid state fermentation. The main objective of this study was to investigate effect of fermentation on the dynamic state of water and microstructure distribution of water within cornmeal with Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, as well as the effect on composition and microstructure properties. The spin–spin relaxation time (T2) showed significant changes in solid-state fermented cornmeal. Principal component analysis further revealed that the variations within different fermentation stage could be discriminated by the T2 parameters. Bulk water (T22) was the main form of water present and lost in substrates. The weights of different indicators, as assessed by multiple regression analysis, demonstrated that there was a strong correlation between starch and T2 relaxation. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that fermentation can cause the appearance of micropores. The longer relaxation time of T22 during logarithmic period can be interpreted as a loosening of the structure at the starch hydrolysis, introducing more water into the structure. Thus, the differences in composition and structure of the substrate at different fermentation time produce different T2 values.


Solid-state fermentation Cornmeal LF-NMR Cordyceps militaris 



This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China. (Grant Number: 2016YFD0400702), and Jilin Province “Double Ten Project” Major Scientific and Technological Projects - Key Technology Research and Product Development of Health Staple Food of Coarse Grains. (Grant Number: 20150201010NY).

Supplementary material

13197_2019_3569_MOESM1_ESM.docx (32 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 31 kb)


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science, College of Food Science and EngineeringJilin Agricultural UniversityChangchunChina
  2. 2.National Engineering Laboratory for Wheat and Corn Deep ProcessingJilin Agricultural UniversityChangchunChina

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