Quality protein maize based muffins: influence of non-gluten proteins on batter and muffin characteristics
- 20 Downloads
Quality protein maize (QPM) is nutritionally improved maize which has twice the amount of lysine and tryptophan than normal maize. The present study evaluated the effect of different proteins namely egg white proteins (EWP), casein, whey protein isolate, soy protein isolate (SPI) on characteristics of gluten free QPM based muffins. QPM muffins without any added protein served as control and muffins prepared using wheat and EWP served as reference. Effect of addition of different proteins on pasting properties revealed that the thermal stability of QPM flour increased as indicated by decrease in breakdown viscosity. The effect of added proteins on QPM muffin-making properties was evaluated for rheology of batter and physicochemical, texture, color and sensory characteristics of muffins. Dynamic rheology showed that storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of batter with SPI was the highest while batter with EWP showed lowest value. QPM–EWP muffins were softer, chewy and springier and had more specific volume than control muffins and were comparable to reference muffins. Inclusion of all proteins increased L* values (lightness) and decreased a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellow/blueness) values of QPM based muffins. Sensory analysis revealed that gluten free QPM muffin prepared from EWP were acceptable with a sensory score of 7.97 which was comparable to reference muffins (8.03).
KeywordsEgg white proteins Muffin Quality protein maize Soy protein isolate Whey protein isolate Rheology
The authors acknowledge the ICAR-IIMR, Ludhiana for providing QPM grains, help provided for texture analysis by Dr M.S. Alam, College of Agricultural Engineering, PAU, Ludhiana, facilities and financial support extended by the Director, ICAR-CIPHET, Ludhiana, Punjab (India) and Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi (India).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Adeyemi IA, Idowu MA (1990) Evaluation of pregelatinized maize flour in the development of Maissa, a baked product. Niger Food J 8:63–73Google Scholar
- AOAC (2000) Official method of analysis of AOAC International, 17th edn. Method 925.09, 969.24, 950.48 and 923.03. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD, USAGoogle Scholar
- BIS (1971) Indian Standard IS: 6273 Part I and Part II. Guide for sensory evaluation of foods. Indian Standard Institution (BIS), Manak Bhawan, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- Edema MO, Sanni LO, Sanni A (2005) Evaluation of maize-soybean flour blends for sour maize bread production in Nigeria. Afr J Biotech 4(9):911–918Google Scholar
- Francis FJ, Clydesdale FM (1975) Food colorimetry: theory and applications. AVI Publishing Company Inc, WestportGoogle Scholar
- FSSAI (2016) Manual of methods of analysis of foods microbiological testing. Food Safety and Standards Authority of India, Ministry of health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- Giwa EO, Abiodun V (2010) Quality characteristics of biscuits produced from composite flours of wheat and quality protein maize. Afr J Food Sci Technol 5:116–119Google Scholar
- Harrigan WF, Mccance MF (1976) Laboratory methods in food and dairy microbiology, Revised edn. Academic Press Inc. Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
- Man S, Adriana P, Sevastiţa M, Anamaria P (2014) Studies on the formulation and quality characteristics of gluten free muffins. J Agro Aliment Process Technol 20:122–127Google Scholar
- Mishra N, Chandra R (2012) Development of functional biscuit from soy flour and rice bran. Int J Agric Food Sci 2:14–20Google Scholar