Quality protein maize based muffins: influence of non-gluten proteins on batter and muffin characteristics

  • Manju Bala
  • T. V. Arun Kumar
  • Surya Tushir
  • S. K. Nanda
  • R. K. Gupta
Original Article


Quality protein maize (QPM) is nutritionally improved maize which has twice the amount of lysine and tryptophan than normal maize. The present study evaluated the effect of different proteins namely egg white proteins (EWP), casein, whey protein isolate, soy protein isolate (SPI) on characteristics of gluten free QPM based muffins. QPM muffins without any added protein served as control and muffins prepared using wheat and EWP served as reference. Effect of addition of different proteins on pasting properties revealed that the thermal stability of QPM flour increased as indicated by decrease in breakdown viscosity. The effect of added proteins on QPM muffin-making properties was evaluated for rheology of batter and physicochemical, texture, color and sensory characteristics of muffins. Dynamic rheology showed that storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of batter with SPI was the highest while batter with EWP showed lowest value. QPM–EWP muffins were softer, chewy and springier and had more specific volume than control muffins and were comparable to reference muffins. Inclusion of all proteins increased L* values (lightness) and decreased a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellow/blueness) values of QPM based muffins. Sensory analysis revealed that gluten free QPM muffin prepared from EWP were acceptable with a sensory score of 7.97 which was comparable to reference muffins (8.03).


Egg white proteins Muffin Quality protein maize Soy protein isolate Whey protein isolate Rheology 



The authors acknowledge the ICAR-IIMR, Ludhiana for providing QPM grains, help provided for texture analysis by Dr M.S. Alam, College of Agricultural Engineering, PAU, Ludhiana, facilities and financial support extended by the Director, ICAR-CIPHET, Ludhiana, Punjab (India) and Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi (India).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

13197_2018_3529_MOESM1_ESM.doc (450 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 449 kb)
13197_2018_3529_MOESM2_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 18 kb)


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manju Bala
    • 1
  • T. V. Arun Kumar
    • 2
  • Surya Tushir
    • 1
  • S. K. Nanda
    • 1
  • R. K. Gupta
    • 3
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and TechnologyLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Mahatma Gandhi Institute for Rural IndustrializationWardhaIndia

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