Kinetics studies on effects of extraction techniques on bioactive compounds from Vernonia cinerea leaf
- 84 Downloads
Recently, unconventional methods especially microwave-assisted hydrodistillation extraction (MAHE) is being used as an alternative technique for extracting bioactive compounds from plant materials due to its advantages over conventional methods such as Soxhlet extraction (SE). In this study, bioactive compounds were extracted from Vernonia cinerea leaf using both MAHE and SE methods. In addition, the kinetic study of MAHE and SE methods were carried out using first- and second-order kinetic models. The results obtained showed that MAHE can extract higher yield of bioactive compounds from V. cinerea leaf in a shorter time and reduced used of extracting solvent compared with SE method. Based on the results obtained, second-order kinetic models can actually describe the extraction of bioactive compounds from V. cinerea leaf through MAHE with extraction rate coefficient of 0.1172 L/gmin and extraction capacity of 1.0547 L/g as compared to SE with 0.0157 L/gmin and 1.1626 L/g of extraction rate coefficient and extraction capacity, respectively. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the oil showed the presence of numerous heavy fractions in the oil obtained through MAHE as compared with the SE method. Moreover, the electric consumption and environmental impacts analysis of the oil suggested that MAHE can be a suitable green technique for extracting bioactive compounds from V. cinerea leaf.
KeywordsMicrowave-assisted hydrodistillation Bioactive compounds Soxhlet Kinetic model Extraction capacity Extraction coefficient
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript has confirmed that there is no conflict of interest.
- Alara OR, Abdurahman NH, Ukaegbu CI (2018a) Soxhlet extraction of phenolic compounds from Vernonia cinerea leaves and its antioxidant activity. J Appl Res Med Aromat Plants 11:12–17Google Scholar
- Arivoli S, Tennyson S, Jesudoss Martin J (2011) Larvicidal efficacy of Vernonia cinerea (L.) (asteraceae) leaf extracts against the filarial vector culex quinquefasciatus say (Diptera: Culicidae). J Biopestic 4:37–42Google Scholar
- Chua LSL, Kirton LG, Saw LG (eds) (2005) Status of biological diversity in Malaysia and threat assessment of plant species in Malaysia. Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, pp 1–298Google Scholar
- Ibrahim R, Shaari AR, Faris G (2014) Overview of medicinal plants spread and their uses in Asia, pp 1–6Google Scholar
- Kusuma HS, Mahfud M (2015) Preliminary study: kinetics of oil extraction from sandalwood by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation. ASEAN J Chem Eng 15:62–69Google Scholar
- Prabha JL (2015) Therapeutic uses of Vernonia cinerea—a short review. Int J Pharm Clin Res 7:323–325Google Scholar
- Raut P, Bhosle D, Janghel A, Deo S, Verma C, Kumar SS, Agrawal M, Amit N, Sharma M, Giri T (2015) Emerging microwave assisted extraction (MAE) techniques as an innovative green technologies for the effective extraction of the active phytopharmaceuticals. Res J Pharm Technol 8:655–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Shelar D, Tikole S, Kakade T (2014) Vernonia cinerea: a review. J Curr Pharma Res 4:1194–1200Google Scholar
- Somasundaram A, Velmurugan V, Senthilkumar GP (2010) In vitro antimicrobial activity of Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. Pharmacol 2:957–960Google Scholar