Changes in quality and phytochemical contents of avocado oil under different temperatures

  • Lívia Maria Braga Resende
  • Vanessa Rios de Souza
  • Guilherme Max Dias Ferreira
  • Cleiton Antônio Nunes
Original Article


Avocado oil, which has a high content of monounsaturated fatty acid and health-beneficial phytochemicals, is consumed in salads and also can be used for cooking. Therefore, is essential to study its oxidative and photochemical stability under different temperatures. So this work aimed to evaluate the oil oxidation and the phytochemical degradation of avocado oil under three different temperatures: room, 100 °C and 180 °C. The oil oxidation was evaluated by peroxide value and specific extinction in ultraviolet. The phytochemical degradation was evaluated for phytosterol, chlorophylls, and carotenoids contents. The temperature was found to significantly influence the oil oxidation and phytochemical stability, with the oxidation/degradation rate constants increasing with temperature. At room temperature, all oxidative parameters increased linearly with time, indicating a zero-order kinetic. At 100 and 180 °C, peroxide value, K232 and K270 increased linearly at a higher rate, becoming constant or decreasing after a short reaction time. The activation energy from specific extinction at 270 nm curves was 17.74 kcal mol−1 for oil degradation. For phytochemical compounds, the mechanism of reactions depended on the temperature, in which the reaction orders increased with heating. The activation energies for carotenoids, chlorophylls and sterols degradations at high temperatures were 5.00, 6.93, and 4.48 kcal mol−1, respectively. In this way, we found that avocado oil has its stability and quality affected by temperature, and, therefore, is not indicated for use in long and/or successive heating processes.


Persea americana Lipid Stability Heating Storage 



The authors thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Brasília, Brazil) by granting the scholarship and the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil) by financial support for this research (CAG - APQ-00638-14 and CAG - PPM-00498-16 FAPEMIG).


  1. Allouche Y, Jimenez A, Gaforio JJ, Uceda M, Beltran G (2007) How heating affects extra virgin olive oil quality indexes and chemical composition. J Agric Food Chem 55:9646–9654. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. AOCS-The American Oil Chemists’ Society. (1998) Official methods and recommended practices of the American oil chemists’ society. (5th ed.). Press, Champaign (Cc 13i—96)Google Scholar
  3. Aparicio-Ruiz R, Gandul-Rojas B (2014) Decoloration kinetics of chlorophylls and carotenoids in virgin olive oil by autoxidation. Food Res Int 65:199–206. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Araújo LBDC, Silva SL, Galvão MAM, Ferreira MRA, Araújo EL, Randau KP, Soares LAL (2013) Total phytosterol content in drug materials and extracts from roots of Acanthospermum hispidum by UV–VIS spectrophotometry. Braz J Pharmacogn 23:736–742. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashton OBO, Wong M, McGhie TK, Vather R, Wang Y, Requejo-Jackman C, Ramankutty P, Woolf AB (2006) Pigments in avocado tissue and oil. J Agric Food Chem 54:10151–10158. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Association of Official Analytical Chemists-AOAC (1998) Official methods of analysis, 16th edn. AOAC, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  7. Ayadi MA, Grati-Kamoun N, Attia H (2009) Physico-chemical change and heat stability of extra virgin olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants. Food Chem Toxicol 47:2613–2619. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bendini A, Valli E, Cerretani L, Chiavaro E, Lercker G (2009) Study on the effects of heating of virgin olive oil blended with mildly deodorized olive oil: focus on the hydrolytic and oxidative state. J Agric Food Chem 57:10055–10062. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berasategi I, Barriuso B, Ansorena D, Astiasarán I (2012) Stability of avocado oil during heating: comparative study to olive oil. Food Chem 132:394–446. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berger A, Jones P, Abumweis S (2004) Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients. Lipids Health Dis 3(1):1–19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cercaci L, Passalacqua G, Poerio A, Rodriguez-Estrada MT, Lercker G (2007) Composition of total sterols (4-desmethyl-sterols) in extravirgin olive oils obtained with different extraction technologies and their influence on the oil oxidative stability. Food Chem 102(1):66–76. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Choe E, Min DB (2007) Chemistry of deep-fat frying oils. J Food Sci 72(5):R77–R86. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Codex Alimentarus (1999) Codex standard for edible fats and oils not covered by individual standards. CODEX STAN 19-1981, Rev. 2-1999. Codex Alimentarius, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  14. Criado MN, Romero MP, Casanovas M, Motilva MJ (2008) Pigment profile and colour of monovarietal virgin olive oils from Arbequina cultivar obtained during two consecutive crop seasons. Food Chem 110:873–880. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dutta PC, Appelqvist LA (1996) Sterols and sterol oxides in the potato products, and sterols in the vegetable oils used for industrial frying operations. Grasas Aceites 47:38–47. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gómez-Alonso S, Mancebo-Campos V, Salvador MD, Fregapane G (2004) Oxidation kinetics in olive oil triacylglycerols under accelerated shelf-life testing (25–75 C). Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 106(6):369–375. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gross J (1991) Pigments in vegetables: chlorophylls and carotenoids, 1st edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gutiérrez F, Villafranca MJ, Castellano JM (2002) Changes in the main components and quality indices of virgin olive oil during oxidation. J Am Oil Chem Soc 79(7):669–676. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ínanç AL (2011) Chlorophyll: structural properties, health benefits and its occurrence in virgin olive oils. Akad Gida Acad Food J 9(2):26–32Google Scholar
  20. Kmiecik D, Korczak J, Rudzinska M, Gramza-Michalowska A, Hes M (2009) Stabilization of phytosterols in rapeseed oil by natural antioxidants during heating. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 111(11):1124–1132. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lampi AM, Juntunen L, Toivo J, Piironen V (2002) Determination of thermo-oxidation products of plant sterols. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 777:83–92. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lengyel J, Rimarcík J, Vagánek A, Fedor J, Lukeš V, Klein E (2012) Oxidation of sterols: energetics of C–H and O–H bond cleavage. Food Chem 133:1435–1440. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li TSC, Beveridge THJ, Drover JCG (2007) Phytosterol content of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil: extraction and identification. Food Chem 101(4):1633–1639. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lottenberg AMP (2009) Importance of the dietary fat on the prevention and control of metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular disease. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 53(5):595–607. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Mancebo-Campos V, Fregapane G, Salvador MD (2008) Kinetic study for the development of an accelerated oxidative stability test to estimate virgin olive oil potential shelf life. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 110(10):969–976. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Marangoni AG (2017) Kinetic analysis of food systems, 1st edn. Springer, ChamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mba OI, Dumont MJ, Ngadi M (2017) Thermostability and degradation kinetics of tocochromanols and carotenoids in palm oil, canola oil and their blends during deep-fat frying. LWT. Food Sci Technol 82:131–138. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Onoji SE, Iyuke SE, Igbafe AI (2016) Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed) oil: extraction, characterization, and kinetics of thermo-oxidative degradation using classical chemical methods. Energy Fuels 30:10555–10567. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Patras A, Brunton NP, Tiwari K, Butler F (2011) Stability and degradation kinetics of bioactive compounds and colour in strawberry jam during storage. Food Bioprocess Technol 4(7):1245–1252. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Requejo AM, Ortega RM, Robles F, Navia B, Faci M, Aparicio A (2003) Influence of nutrition on cognitive function in a group of elderly, independently living people. Eur J Clin Nutr 57:S54–S57. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Rudzinska M, Korczak J, Wasowicz E (2005) Changes in phytosterols and their oxidation products during frying of French fries in rapeseed oil. Pol J Food Nutr Sci 14:381–387Google Scholar
  32. Rudzinska M, Przybylski R, Wasowicz E (2014) Degradation of phytosterols during storage of enriched margarines. Food Chem 142:294–298. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Sabir SM, Hayat I, Gardezi SDA (2003) Estimation of sterols in edible fats and oils. Pak J Nutr 2:178–181. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shim SD, Lee SJ (2011) Shelf-life prediction of perilla oil by considering the induction period of lipid oxidation. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 113(7):904–909. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Suárez JMM, Aranda M, Mendoza J, Rey AL (1975) Informe sobre utilización del analizador de rendimentos “Abencor”. Grasas Aceites 26:379–385Google Scholar
  36. Tango JS, Carvalho CRL, Soares NB (2004) Physical and chemical characterization of avocado fruits aiming its potencial for oil extraction. Rev Bras Frutic 26(1):17–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Teixeira Neto RO, Vitali AA, Moura SCSR (2004) Introdução à cinética de reação em alimentos. In: Moura SCSR (ed) Reações de transformação e vida-de-prateleira de alimentos processados. ITAL, Campinas, pp 63–83Google Scholar
  38. Unlu NZ, Bohn T, Clinton SK, Schwartz SJ (2005) Carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa by humans is enhanced by the addition of avocado or avocado oil. J Nutr 135(3):431–436. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Werman MJ, Neeman I (1986) Oxidative stability of Avocado Oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 63:355–360. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Winkler JK, Warner K, Glynn MT (2007) Effect of deep-fat frying on phytosterol content in oils with differing fatty acid composition. J Am Oil Chem Soc 84(11):1023–1030. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zaid O, Houshia OJ, Abueid M, Zaid M (2013) Palestinian Nabali-Baladi olive oil quality: premium ultra fine extra virgin olive oil classification. USA Res J 1(2):29–34Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryFederal University of Lavras, University CampusLavrasBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Food ScienceFederal University of Lavras, University CampusLavrasBrazil

Personalised recommendations