Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 55, Issue 10, pp 3979–3990 | Cite as

Changes in physico-chemical, astringency, volatile compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh and concentrated cashew apple juice fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum

  • Ratchadaporn Kaprasob
  • Orapin KerdchoechuenEmail author
  • Natta Laohakunjit
  • Benjawan Thumthanaruk
  • Kalidas Shetty
Original Article


Changes in physico-chemical qualities (pH, total acidity, total and reducing sugar, total phenolic and vitamin C), astringency compounds (condensed and hydrolysable tannin), antioxidant activities [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical] and flavor volatile compounds in Lactobacillus plantarum-fermented cashew-apple-juice (CAJ) and 11.4 °Bx concentrated-cashew-apple-juice (CCAJ) was investigated. Total phenolics remained unchanged throughout fermentation period, whereas condensed tannins increased and hydrolysable tannins decreased indicating reduced astringency compounds. Antioxidant activity based on both DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities marginally declined in some stages but overall were sustained during fermentation. Although the DPPH· radical based antioxidant activity of fermented CAJ was greater than that of fermented 11.4 °Bx CCAJ, a higher ABTS·+ radical scavenging activity was found in fermented 11.4 °Bx CCAJ, reflecting higher water soluble antioxidants. Results also indicated that DPPH· radical scavenging activity was positively correlated to vitamin-C and condensed tannins but not hydrolysable tannins. ABTS·+ radical scavenging activity was also positively correlated to condensed tannins and not hydrolysable tannins. The vitamin-C that increased during initial 12 h fermentation, decreased from 2516 to 2150 mg AAE/L at the end of 72 h fermentation. Fermented CAJ had a remarkable sweet aroma with a fruity note of two major compounds; 3-methyl-1-butanol (14.20 × 107) and 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanol (14.76 × 107). The high phytochemicals and volatile compounds in fermented CAJ indicated that it could serve as a functional beverage with potential health benefits with reduced astringency due to lower hydrolysable tannins.


Total phenolics Condensed tannins Hydrolysable tannins Vitamin C Sweet fruity aroma 



This work was supported by the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program (PHD/0186/2553), and National Research University Project of Thailand. The cashew apple was kindly provided by Heritage Grower Corporation Ltd.


  1. Adetuyi FO, Ibrahim TA (2014) Effect of fermentation time on the phenolic, flavonoid and vitamin C contents and antioxidant activities of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds. Niger Food J 32:128–137. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ankolekar C, Johnson K, Pinto M, Johnson D, Labbe RG, Greene D, Shetty K (2012) Fermentation of whole apple juice using Lactobacillus acidophilus for potential dietary management of hyperglycemia, hypertension, and modulation of beneficial bacterial responses. J Food Biochem 36:718–738. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AOAC (2000) Association of official analytical chemists, 14th edn. AOAC, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  4. Badarinath A, Rao KM, Chetty CMS, Ramkanth S, Rajan T, Gnanaprakash K (2010) A review on in vitro antioxidant methods: comparisions, correlations and considerations. Int J PharmTech Res 2:1276–1285Google Scholar
  5. Berry AD, Sargent SA (2011) Cashew apple and nut (Anacardium occidentale L.), vol 2. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bersuder P, Hole M, Smith G (1998) Antioxidants from a heated histidine-glucose model system I: investigation of the antioxidant role of histidine and isolation of antioxidants by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Am Oil Chem Soc 75:181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Braga CM et al (2013) Classification of juices and fermented beverages made from unripe, ripe and senescent apples based on the aromatic profile using chemometrics. Food Chem 141:967–974CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chapin KC, Lauderdale T (2003) Reagents, stains, and media: bacteriology. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Jorgensen JH, Pfaller MA, Yolken RH (eds) Manual of clinical microbiology, 8th edn. ASM Press, Washington, D.C., p 358Google Scholar
  9. Costa MGM, Fonteles TV, De Jesus ALT, Rodrigues S (2013) Sonicated pineapple juice as substrate for L. casei cultivation for probiotic beverage development: process optimisation and product stability. Food Chem 139:261–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F (1956) Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 28:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Escudero-López B et al (2013) Fermented orange juice: source of higher carotenoid and flavanone contents. J Agric Food Chem 61:8773–8782CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fan W, Xu Y, Han Y (2011) Quantification of volatile compounds in chinese ciders by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). J Inst Brew 117:61–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garruti DS, Franco MRB, da Silva MAAP, Janzantti NS, Alves GL (2003) Evaluation of volatile flavour compounds from cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) juice by the Osme gas chromatography/olfactometry technique. J Sci Food Agric 83:1455–1462. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garruti DS, Franco MRB, da Silva MAAP, Janzantti NS, Alves GL (2006) Assessment of aroma impact compounds in a cashew apple-based alcoholic beverage by GC-MS and GC-olfactometry. LWT Food Sci Technol 39:372–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. He L, Xu H, Liu X, He W, Yuan F, Hou Z, Gao Y (2011) Identification of phenolic compounds from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed residues and investigation into their antioxidant capacities by HPLC–ABTS + assay. Food Res Int 44:1161–1167. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hernandez T, Estrella I, Perez-Gordo M, Alegria EG, Tenorio C, Ruiz-Larrrea F, Moreno-Arribas MV (2007) Contribution of malolactic fermentation by Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus plantarum to the changes in the nonanthocyanin polyphenolic composition of red wine. J Agric Food Chem 55:5260–5266. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL (2005) The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem 53:1841–1856CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Hur SJ, Lee SY, Kim Y-C, Choi I, Kim G-B (2014) Effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity in plant-based foods. Food Chem 160:346–356. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ibanoglu S, Ainsworth P, Wilson G, Hayes GD (1995) The effect of fermentation conditions on the nutrients and acceptability of tarhana. Food Chem 53:143–147. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mousavi ZE, Mousavi SM, Razavi SH, Hadinejad M, Emam-Djomeh Z, Mirzapour M (2013) Effect of fermentation of pomegranate juice by Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus on the antioxidant activity and metabolism of sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds. Food Biotechnol 27:1–13. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nagpal R, Kumar A, Kumar M (2012) Fortification and fermentation of fruit juices with probiotic lactobacilli. Ann Microbiol 62:1573–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nicoli MC, Anese M, Parpinel M (1999) Influence of processing on the antioxidant properties of fruit and vegetables. Trends Food Sci Technol 10:94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nie S, Huang J, Hu J, Zhang Y, Wang S, Li C, Marcone M, Xie M (2013) Effect of pH, tempterature and heating time on the formation of furan in sugar–glycine model systems. Food Sci Hum Wellness 2:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pereira ALF, Maciel TC, Rodrigues S (2011) Probiotic beverage from cashew apple juice fermented with Lactobacillus casei. Food Res Int 44:1276–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Queiroz C, da Silva AJR, Lopes MLM, Fialho E, Valente-Mesquita VL (2011) Polyphenol oxidase activity, phenolic acid composition and browning in cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) after processing. Food Chem 125:128–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Raimbault OA, Tewe OO (2001) Protein enrichment of sweet potato by solid substrate fermentation using four monoculture fungi Nigerian. J Biotechnol 9:1–4Google Scholar
  27. Rodríguez H et al (2009) Food phenolics and lactic acid bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 132:79–90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Rufino MDSM, Pérez-Jiménez J, Tabernero M, Alves RE, De Brito ES, Saura-Calixto F (2010) Acerola and cashew apple as sources of antioxidants and dietary fibre. Int J Food Sci Technol 45:2227–2233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Saad H, Charrier-El Bouhtoury F, Pizzi A, Rode K, Charrier B, Ayed N (2012) Characterization of pomegranate peels tannin extractives. Ind Crops Prod 40:239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Salmerón I, Thomas K, Pandiella SS (2014) Effect of substrate composition and inoculum on the fermentation kinetics and flavour compound profiles of potentially non-dairy probiotic formulations. LWT Food Sci Technol 55:240–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shan B, Cai YZ, Sun M, Corke H (2005) Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and charactrization of their phenolic constituents. J Agric Food Chem 53:7749–7759CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Shrestha AK, Dahal NR, Ndungutse V (2013) Bacillus fermentation of soybean: a review. J Food Sci Technol Nepal 6:1–9Google Scholar
  33. Silveira MS, Fontes CP, Guilherme AA, Fernandes FA, Rodrigues S (2012) Cashew apple juice as substrate for lactic acid production. Food Bioprocess Technol 5:947–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Somogyi M (1952) Determination of reducing sugars by Nelson–Somogyi method. J Biol Chem 200:245Google Scholar
  35. Sun B, Ricardo-da-Silva JM, Spranger I (1998) Critical factors of vanillin assay for catechins and proanthocyanidins. J Agric Food Chem 46:4267–4274. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Suntornsuk L, Gritsanapun W, Nilkamhank S, Paochom A (2002) Quantitation of vitamin C content in herbal juice using direct titration. J Pharm Biomed Anal 28:849–855. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ratchadaporn Kaprasob
    • 1
  • Orapin Kerdchoechuen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Natta Laohakunjit
    • 1
  • Benjawan Thumthanaruk
    • 2
  • Kalidas Shetty
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Bioresources and TechnologyKing Mongkut’s University of Technology ThonburiBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Faculty of Applied ScienceKing Mongkut’s University of Technology North BangkokBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Department of Plant SciencesNorth Dakota State UniversityFargoUSA

Personalised recommendations