Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 55, Issue 9, pp 3749–3756 | Cite as

Effect of extrusion on thermal, textural and rheological properties of legume based snack

  • Laxmi Ananthanarayan
  • Yogesh GatEmail author
  • Anil Panghal
  • Navnidhi Chhikara
  • Poorva Sharma
  • Vikas Kumar
  • Barinderjit Singh
Original Article


Attempts have been made to improve dough handling properties and quality of legume based snack by incorporating extruded black gram (EBG) flour as partial substitute for raw black gram (RBG) flour. In present work overall quality improvement was achieved by analyzing (a) thermal properties of RBG and EBG flour (b) rheological properties (shear stress, shear rate, storage modulus, loss modulus, deflection angle and complex viscosity) of legume based snack dough and (c) post frying characteristics (colour and texture) of legume based snack. Three different legume based snack samples with different flour formulations (RBG flour, RBG flour incorporated with 25% EBG flour and RBG flour incorporated with 50% EBG flour) were prepared, characterized and compared with standard market sample. Dough exhibited shear thinning behaviour and G′ and G″ showed rising behaviour with angular frequency whereas, complex viscosity showed decreasing behaviour. Herschel–Bulkley model was best fitted. Significant changes were observed in values of onset, peak and endset gelatinization temperatures on extraction of black gram flour which improved dough handling properties during papad processing and enhanced organoleptic profile of end product.


Black gram flour Extrusion Dough rheology Characterization of legume based snack 



This work was supported by funding from University Grants Commission (UGC), India.


  1. Ananthanarayan L, Gat Y, Kumar V et al (2018) Extruded black gram flour: partial substitute for improving quality characteristics of Indian traditional snack. J Ethn Foods 5:54–59. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bajaj I, Singhal R (2007) Gellan gum for reducing oil uptake in sev, a legume based product during deep-fat frying. Food Chem 104:1472–1477. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Castell-Perez M, Mishra A (1995) Flow behavior of regular and peanut-fortified idli batters. J Texture Stud 26:273–279. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ding Q-B, Ainsworth P, Tucker G, Marson H (2005) The effect of extrusion conditions on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of rice-based expanded snacks. J Food Eng 66:283–289. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gat Y, Ananthanarayan L (2015a) Physicochemical, phytochemical and nutritional impact of fortified cereal-based extrudate snacks. Nutrafoods 14:141–149. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gat Y, Ananthanarayan L (2015b) Effect of extrusion process parameters and pregelatinized rice flour on physicochemical properties of ready-to-eat expanded snacks. J Food Sci Technol 52:2634–2645. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gat Y, Ananthanarayan L (2016) Use of paprika oily extract as pre-extrusion colouring of rice extrudates: impact of processing and storage on colour stability. J Food Sci Technol 53:2887–2894. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Gujral HS, Sodhi NS (2002) Back extrusion properties of wheat porridge (Dalia). J Food Eng 52:53–56. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gujral HS, Guardiola I, Carbonell JV, Rosell CM (2003) Effect of cyclodextrinase on dough rheology and bread quality from rice flour. J Agric Food Chem 51:3814–3818. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hoover R, Li Y, Hynes G, Senanayake N (1997) Physicochemical characterization of mung bean starch. Food Hydrocoll 11:401–408. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Izydorczyk M, Hussain A, Macgregor A (2001) Effect of barley and barley components on rheological properties of wheat dough. J Cereal Sci 34:251–260. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Juliano BO (1998) Varietal impact on rice quality. Cereal Food World 43:207–222Google Scholar
  13. Kaur K, Singh N, Singh H (2000) The effect of extruded flour and fermentation time on some quality parameters of idli. J Food Qual 23:15–25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kaur P, Sharma P, Kumar V et al (2017) Effect of addition of flaxseed flour on phytochemical, physicochemical, nutritional, and textural properties of cookies. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Krokida M, Oreopoulou V, Maroulis Z, Marinos-Kouris D (2001) Colour changes during deep fat frying. J Food Eng 48:219–225. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lazaridou A, Duta D, Papageorgiou M et al (2007) Effects of hydrocolloids on dough rheology and bread quality parameters in gluten-free formulations. J Food Eng 79:1033–1047. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Marzec A, Lewicki PP (2006) Antiplasticization of cereal-based products by water. Part I. Extruded flat bread. J Food Eng 73:1–8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maskat MY, Rohaya MS, Maaruf AG (2013) Rheological properties of different degree of pregelatinized rice flour batter. Sains Malays 42:1707–1714Google Scholar
  19. Patil SJ, Singhal RS, Kulkarni PR (2005) Studies of a 2:1 sodium carbonate:sodium bicarbonate mixture as papadkhar substitute for papads. Food Chem 91:51–56. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Reddy GC, Susheelamma NS, Tharanathan RN (1989) Viscosity pattern of native and fermented black gram flour and starch dispersions. Starch-Starke 41:84–88. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sanz T, Salvador A, Vélez G et al (2005) Influence of ingredients on the thermo-rheological behaviour of batters containing methylcellulose. Food Hydrocoll 19:869–877. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sarifudin A, Assiry AM (2014) Some physicochemical properties of dextrin produced by extrusion process. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 13:100–106. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Senthil A, Ravi R, Kumar AKV (2006) Quality characteristics of blackgram papad. Int J Food Sci Nutr 57:29–37. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Singh N, Bawa AS, Sekhon KS (1995) Quality improvement of idli using extruded rice flour. J Food Qual 18:193–202. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Singh N, Kaur M, Sandhu KS, Guraya HS (2004) Physicochemical, thermal, morphological and pasting properties of starches from some Indian black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.) cultivars. Starch-Starke 56:535–544. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Uthayakumaran S, Beasley HL, Stoddard FL et al (2002) Synergistic and additive effects of three high molecular weight glutenin subunit loci. I. Effects on wheat dough rheology. Cereal Chem J 79:294–300. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wu M, Li D, Wang L-J et al (2010) Rheological properties of extruded dispersions of flaxseed-maize blend. J Food Eng 98:480–491. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yadav DN, Kaur J, Anand T, Singh AK (2012) Storage stability and pasting properties of hydrothermally treated pearl millet flour. Int J Food Sci Technol 47:2532–2537. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering and TechnologyInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMatunga, MumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Food Technology and NutritionLovely Professional UniversityPhagwaraIndia
  3. 3.Department of Food Science and TechnologyIKG Punjab Technical UniversityKapurthalaIndia

Personalised recommendations