Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 55, Issue 9, pp 3665–3674 | Cite as

Natural antimicrobials for beet leaves preservation: in vitro and in vivo determination of effectiveness

  • María Verónica Fernandez
  • Rosa Juana Jagus
  • María Victoria Agüero
Original Article


Nisin (Ni), natamycin (Na), green tea extract (GTE) and their combinations were evaluated for controlling beet leaves’ native microbiota as well as Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli external contaminations. Antimicrobial effectiveness was evaluated through in vitro and in vivo studies. In the in vitro studies, GTE treatment (0.85%) completely eliminated growth of native microbiota, reduced L. innocua from values of 8.5–3.5 log from 24 h onwards and reduced E. coli below detection limit (DL) after 72 h. Ni (500 IU/mL) was the most effective against L. innocua (7 log CFU/mL reduction) and its combination with GTE presented significant interactions for mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) and L. innocua control. Na (200 ppm) alone or in combination with GTE did not show antimicrobial activity against microorganisms under study. Additionally in vivo evaluation showed that 2.5–5% GTE concentrations are needed to achieve significant inhibitory effects on MAB, L. innocua and E. coli. Furthermore, the best results for MAB and L. innocua control were obtained with the GTE5 + Ni treatment. This study revealed that GTE, either alone or combined with nisin, is a highly promising option with potential for reducing or preventing the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms present in leafy vegetables, specifically in beet leaves.


Nisin Natamycin Green tea Biopreservation Beet leaves 



This research was financially supported by Universidad de Buenos Aires (20020130100176BA; 20020120300008BA) and Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT 2013-0636) projects. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the Peruilh Foundation (FIUBA) for Fernandez MV scholarship. The authors also wish to thank DSM (Argentina) and Gelfix S.A.


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • María Verónica Fernandez
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rosa Juana Jagus
    • 1
    • 2
  • María Victoria Agüero
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científica y Técnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Tecnologías y Ciencias de la Ingeniería (INTECIN)Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA)Buenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Laboratorio de Microbiología Industrial: Tecnología de alimentos, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de IngenieríaUniversidad de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.Peruilh Foundation, Facultad de IngenieríaUniversidad de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina

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