Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 55, Issue 9, pp 3341–3352 | Cite as

Effect of iodized salt on organoleptic properties of processed foods: a systematic review

  • Jessica L. BlankenshipEmail author
  • Greg S. Garrett
  • Noor Ahmad Khan
  • Luz Maria De-Regil
  • Rebecca Spohrer
  • Jonathan Gorstein
Review Article


Despite the global recommendation for fortification of salt with iodine, including salt used in food processing, most salt iodization programs have focussed only on iodization of household salt. Food manufacturers are frequently concerned about the potential instability of iodine and changes in organoleptic properties of their products if iodized salt is used instead of non-iodized salt. To address these concerns, this paper provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted to assess the effect of iodized salt on the organoleptic properties of processed foods and condiments. A comprehensive review was conducted of eligible studies identified by searching electronic databases (PubMed, Medline) and open Internet searches for studies examining the effect of salt iodized with either potassium iodide (KI) or potassium iodate (KIO3) on processed foods. A total of 34 studies on the effect of iodized salt on 38 types of processed foods are summarized. There is no evidence that the use of iodized salt in production of processed foods or condiments causes adverse organoleptic changes that will affect consumer acceptability or product quality. Universal salt iodization is widely recognized as the most cost-effective intervention to eliminate iodine deficiency. Taking into account increases in the proportion of dietary salt consumed through processed foods, and declines in salt consumed as household salt, iodized salt should be used in the production of processed foods as a means of assuring optimal iodine nutrition without the risk of affecting the organoleptic properties of foods.


Iodized salt Processed foods Salt iodization Organoleptic properties Iodine deficiency 


Author’s contribution

JLB: designed the study, conducted the study, analyzed the data and wrote the article; GSG, NAK, LMDR, RS: formulated the research question; JG: formulated the research question, designed the study and wrote the article.


Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation through the USI Partnership Project.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Amr A, Jabay O (2004a) Quality and residual iodine content of some foods prepared with iodized salt. J Food Agric Environ 2(3&4):21–24Google Scholar
  2. Amr A, Jabay O (2004b) Effect of salt iodization on the quality of pickled vegetables. J Food Agric Environ 2(2):151–156Google Scholar
  3. Anderson C et al (2010) Dietary sources of sodium in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, women and men aged 40–59 years: the INTERMAP Study. J Am Diet Assoc 110(5):736–745. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2016) Monitoring the health impacts of mandatory folic acid and iodine fortification. Accessed 27 Apr 2018
  5. Azanza P, Cariaso K, de la Cerna MC, de Ocampo C, Galvez F, Moises M, Pulanes K (1998) Use of iodized salt in processed Philippine food products. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 7(2):123–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Badran O, Quaraqash W, Gamah S (1996) Possible effects of iodized salt on the taste, colour and consistency of traditional pickles. East Mediterr Health J 2(2):219–223Google Scholar
  7. Bohac L (2011) The food industry can play an important role in correcting iodine deficiency. IDD Newsletter AugustGoogle Scholar
  8. Capanzana MV, Molano BT, Saiase MC, Garcia RG, Trinidad II TE, Lapis TJ, Zarate RU, Guavarra MCP (2006) Effects of iodized salt on the quality of processed food products. Accessed 27 Apr 2018
  9. Chanthilath B, Chavasit V, Chareonkiatkul S, Jadprasong K (2009) Iodine stability and sensory quality of fermented fish and fish sauce produced with the use of iodated salt. Food Nutr Bull 30(2):183–188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Charlton KE, Yeatman H, Brock E, Lucas C, Gemming L, Goodfellow A, Ma G (2013) Improvement in iodine status of pregnant Australian women 3 years after introduction of a mandatory iodine fortification programme. Prev Med 57(1):26–30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. CNSIC (NN) (2004a) A study of iodized salt used in preserved Szechuan pickles. Accessed 27 Apr 2018
  12. CNSIC (NN) (2004b) A study of iodized salt used in soy sauce processing. Accessed 27 Apr 2018
  13. CNSIC (NN) (2004c) A study of iodized salt used in bottled potherb mustard. Accessed 27 Apr 2018
  14. de Jong JM (2007) Review of use of iodized salt in processed foods. ICCIDD. Accessed 25 Apr 2018
  15. Doman M, Korsak D, Lekowska-Kochaniak A, Popowski J (1999) The effect of potassium iodide on cabbage fermentation and growth of chosen microorganisms—short report. Polish J Food Nutr Sci 8/49(2):201–208Google Scholar
  16. Edmonds J, Ryan T (2012) Dietary iodine intake of New Zealand children following fortification of bread with iodine. MAF Technical Paper 02Google Scholar
  17. El Wakeil FAES (1958) Effects of iodized salt and other iodine compounds on the quality of processed vegetables. Dissertation, Ohio State University Columbus, OHGoogle Scholar
  18. Gerasimov G et al (1997) Bread iodization for iodine deficient regions in Russia and other newly independent states. IDD Newsletter FebruaryGoogle Scholar
  19. Gerasimov G (2009) Increasing iodine intakes in populations through the use of iodized salt in bread baking. IDD Newsletter AugustGoogle Scholar
  20. Global Fortification Data Exchange (2018). Accessed 27 Apr 2018
  21. Harris MJ, Jooste PL, Charlton KE (2003) The use of iodized salt in the manufacturing of processed foods in South Africa: bread and bread premixes, margarine, and flavourants of salty snacks. Int J Food Sci Nutr 54:13–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Harrison LJ, Cunningham FE (1986) Influence of salt on properties of liquid yolk and functionality in mayonnaise. Poult Sci 65:915–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hostettler H (1953) Ueber den Einfluss des jodierten Kochsalzes auf die Kasequalitat. Schweize Milchztg 19:1–111Google Scholar
  24. IGN Global Scorecard 2014 (2014). Assessed 15 May 2015
  25. IGN Global Scorecard 2017 (2017). Assessed 27 Apr 2018
  26. Knowles J et al (2017) Iodine intake through processed food: case studies from Egypt, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, 2010–2015. Nutrients 9:797. CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Kojima N, Brown HD (1955) The effects of iodized salt in processed fruits and vegetables. Food Technol 9:103–107Google Scholar
  28. Kuhajek EJ, Fiedelman HW (1973) Nutritional iodine in processed foods. Food Technol 27:52–53Google Scholar
  29. Li M, Eastman C, Ma G (2014) Iodized salt in bread improves iodine nutrition in Australia. IDD Newsletter FebruaryGoogle Scholar
  30. Marggrander K (1996) The manufacture of aspic products with iodized salt and iodized nitrite curing salt. Fleischwirtschaft 76(10):1010–1013Google Scholar
  31. Mencinicopschi G, Zacchia M, Balint L, Vlassa M, Deleanu M (2004) Studies and research of the effect of the use of iodized salt in preserving vegetables by pickling and marinating. The Romanian Company for Applied Research and Investments: The Department for Food Research, RomaniaGoogle Scholar
  32. Ohlhorst SD, Slavin M, Bhide JM, Bugusu B (2012) Use of iodized salt in processed foods in select countries around the world and the role of food processors. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 11(2):233–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Panpipat W, Yongsawatdigul J (2008) Stability of potassium iodide and omega-3 fatty acids in fortified freshwater fish emulsion sausage. Food Sci Technol 41(3):483–492Google Scholar
  34. Rasmussen LB, Ovesen L, Christensen T, Knuthsen P, Larsen EH, Lyhne N, Okholm B, Saxholt E (2007) Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake. Int J Food Sci Nutr 58(3):231–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Seal JA, Doyle Z, Burgess JR, Taylor R, Cameron AR (2007) Iodine status of Tasmanians following voluntary fortification of bread with iodine. Med J Aust 186(2):69–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Sevenants MR, Sanders RA (1984) Anatomy of an off–flavor investigation: the “medicinal” cake mix. Anal Chem 56:293A–298APubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Skeaff S, Lonsdale-Cooper E (2013) Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt modestly improves iodine status in schoolchildren. Br J Nutr 109:1109–1113CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Spohrer R, Ndiaye B, Ndiaye A, Kupka R (2013) Bouillon cubes carrying iodine in West Africa. IDD Newsletter NovemberGoogle Scholar
  39. Thomson BM (2009) Stability of added iodine in processed cereal foods. Food Addit Contam 26(1):25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. UNICEF (2005) Iodized salt in food manufacture and consumption: A study tour of Bulgaria. Accessed 27 Apr 2018
  41. UNICEF (2017) The state of the world’s children 2017: children in a digital world. Accessed 27 Apr 2018
  42. Vandevijvere S (2012) Sodium reduction and the correction of iodine intake in Belgium: policy options. Arch Public Health 70:10CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Vandevijvere S, Lin Y, Moreno-Reyes R, Huybrechts I (2012) Simulation of total dietary iodine intake in Flemish preschool children. Br J Nutr 108:527–535CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. West CE, Merx RJHM (1995) Effect of iodized salt on the colour and taste of food. UNICEF, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. WHO (2013) Salt reduction and iodine fortification strategies in public health: report of a joint technical meeting convened by the World Health Organization and The George Institute for Global Health in collaboration with the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders Global Network, Sydney, Australia, March 2013.;jsessionid=FA0758BF1AF702500C23BF2CB4C7330A?sequence=1 Accessed 25 Apr 2018
  46. WHO (2014) Guideline: fortification of food-grade salt with iodine for the prevention and control of iodine deficiency disorders. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  47. Wiersinga WM, Podoba J, Srbecky M et al (2001) A survey of iodine intake and thyroid volume in Dutch school-children: reference values in an iodine-sufficient area and the effect of puberty. Eur J Endocrinol 144:595–603CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Winger RJ, Koenig J, Lee SJ, Wham C, House DA (2005) Technological issues with iodine fortification of foods. New Zealand Food Safety Authority. Accessed 25 Apr 2018
  49. Wirth F, Kuehne D (1991) Herstellung von jodierten Fleisherzeugnissen. Manufacture of iodized meat products. Fleischwirtschaft 71(12):1377–1384Google Scholar
  50. Zimmermann M (2007) Technical brief: key barriers to global iodine deficiency disorder control: a summary. USAID A2Z Project. Accessed 26 Apr 2018
  51. Zimmermann C, Leiterer M, Engler K, Jahreis G, Schone F (2005) Iodine in Camembert: Effects of iodized salt and milk origin-cow versus goat. Milchwissenschaft 60(4):403–406. Accessed 25 Apr 2018

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica L. Blankenship
    • 1
    Email author
  • Greg S. Garrett
    • 2
  • Noor Ahmad Khan
    • 3
  • Luz Maria De-Regil
    • 3
  • Rebecca Spohrer
    • 4
  • Jonathan Gorstein
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.UNICEF EAPROBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Global Alliance for Improved NutritionGenevaSwitzerland
  3. 3.Micronutrient InitiativeOttawaCanada
  4. 4.SPRING AcceleratorLondonUK
  5. 5.Department of Global HealthUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  6. 6.Iodine Global NetworkSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations