Advertisement

Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 55, Issue 7, pp 2729–2738 | Cite as

Nutritional characterization of apple as a function of genotype

  • Pushpendra Kumar
  • Shruti Sethi
  • R. R. Sharma
  • Surender Singh
  • Supradip Saha
  • V. K. Sharma
  • M. K. Verma
  • Shashi Kumar Sharma
Original Article

Abstract

Twenty two apple cultivars grown in Himachal Pradesh, India were harvested at commercial maturity and analysed for different physical (fruit weight, fruit dimensions, firmness, color) and nutritional attributes (ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity, total carotenoid, sugars, organic acids, phenolic compounds and minerals). Cultivar ‘Oregon Spur II’ was found to have maximum fruit size and weight while the least was observed for cultivar ‘Starkrimson’. Quantitative differences were found in the nutritional profile among the cultivars with respect to all the above attributes. The ascorbic acid content ranged between 19.38 mg 100 g−1 (‘Well Spur’) and 32.08 mg 100 g−1 (‘Starkrimson’) while the antioxidant activity varied between 2.64 μmol Trolox equivalent g−1 (‘Granny Smith’) and 13.20 μmol Trolox equivalent g−1 (‘Silver Spur’). The highest total carotenoid was found in ‘Red Chief’ (147.06 mg kg−1) while in ‘Early Red-I’ the total carotenoid was only 29.03 mg kg−1. HPLC analysis for individual sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds was carried out. Fructose (average 50.79 g L−1) was the most abundant sugar. Malic acid (average 6.03 mg L−1) predominated among the individual organic acids. Potassium (average 795.14 mg 100 g−1) and iron (average 2.04 µg g−1) were the predominant macro and micro elements, respectively. Chlorogenic acid was the major constituent among phenolic compounds.

Keywords

Apple cultivars Chemical composition Malic acid Phenolic compounds 

References

  1. Alberti A, Zielinski AAF, Couto M, Judacewski P, Mafra LI, Nogueira A (2017) Distribution of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in apples tissues during ripening. J Food Sci Technol 54:1511–1518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Apak R, Guclu K, Ozyurek M, Karademir SE (2004) Novel total antioxidants capacity index for dietary polyphenol and vitamins C and E using their cupric ion reducing capability in the presence of neocuprine: CUPRAC method. J Agric Food Chem 52:7970–7981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayaz FA, Kadioglu A (1997) Changes in phenolic acid contents of Diospyros lotus L. during fruit development. J Agric Food Chem 45:2539–2541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beyer M, Hahn R, Peschel S, Harz M, Knoche B (2002) Analyzing fruit shape in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Sci Hortic 96:139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bondonno NP, Bondonno CP, Ward NC, Hodgson JM, Croft KD (2017) The cardiovascular health benefits of apples: whole fruit vs. isolated Compounds. Trends Food Sci Technol 69:243–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carbone KB, Giannini Picchi V, Lo Scalzo R, Cecchini F (2011) Phenolic composition and free radical scavenging activity of different apple varieties in relation to the cultivar, tissue type and storage. Food Chem 127:493–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cindric J, Krizman I, Zeimer M, Kampic S, Medunic G, Stingeder G (2012) ICP-AES determination of minor- and major elements in apples after microwave assisted digestion. Food Chem 135:2675–2680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Craig W, Beck L (1999) Phytochemicals: health protective effects. Can J Diet Pract Res Summer 60:78–84Google Scholar
  9. Delgado-Pelayo R, Gallardo-Guerrero L, Hornero-Méndez D (2014) Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments in the peel and flesh of commercial apple fruit varieties. Food Res Int 65:272–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fan X, Mattheis JP, Patterson ME, Fellman JK (1995) Changes in amylose and total starch content in ‘Fuji’ apples during maturation. Hort Sci 30:104–105Google Scholar
  11. Fazli FA, Fazli NA (2014) Evaluation and determination of minerals content in fruits. Int J Pl Anim Environ Sci 4:160–166Google Scholar
  12. Harker FR, Kupferman EM, Marin AB, Gunson FA, Triggs CM (2008) Eating quality standards for apples based on consumer preferences. Postharvest Biol Technol 50:70–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hecke K, Herbinger K, Veberic R, Trobec M, Toplak H, Stampar F, Keppel H, Grill D (2006) Sugar- acid- and phenol contents in apple cultivars from organic and integrated fruit cultivation. Eur J Clin Nutr 60:1136–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Horsley R, Gokbel H, Ozcan MM, Harmankaya M, Simsek S (2014) Monitoring of element contents of three different apple (Malus Spp.) varieties in an apple tree. J Food Nutr Res 2:127–129Google Scholar
  15. Hudina M, Stampar F (2006) Influence of frost damage on the sugars and organic acids contents in apple and pear flowers. Eur J Hortic Sci 71:161–164Google Scholar
  16. Jan I, Rab A, Sajid M (2012) Storage performance of apple cultivars harvested at different stages of maturity. J Anim Plant Sci 22:438–447Google Scholar
  17. Joshi APK, Rupasinghe HPV, Pitts NL, Khanizadeh S (2007) Biochemical characterization of enzymatic browning in selected apple genotypes. Can J Plant Sci 87:1067–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lata B, Tomala K (2007) Relationship between apple peel and the whole fruit antioxidant content: year and cultivar variation. J Agric Food Chem 55:663–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Łata B, Trampczynska A, Paczesna J (2009) Cultivar variation in apple peel and whole fruit phenolic composition. Sci Hortic 121:176–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ma T, Sun X, Zhao J, You Y, Lei Y, Gao G, Zhan J (2017) Nutrient compositions and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit (Actinidia)and their relationship with flesh color and commercial value. Food Chem 218:294–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Manzoor M, Anwar F, Saari N, Ashraf M (2012) Variations of antioxidant characteristics and mineral contents in pulp and peel of different apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars from Pakistan. Molecules 17:390–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mihailović NR, Mihailović VB, Kreft S, Ćirić AR, Joksović LG, Đurđević PT (2018) Analysis of phenolics in the peel and pulp of wild apples (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.). J Food Compos Anal 67:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mohsenin NN (1986) Physical properties of plant and animal materials. Gordon and Breach Science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Mpaia S, du Preezb R, Sultanbawac Y, Sivakumara D (2018) Phytochemicals and nutritional composition in accessions of Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra): Southern African indigenous fruit. Food Chem 253:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Musacchi S, Serra S (2017) Apple fruit quality: overview on pre-harvest factors. Sci Hortic.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2017.12.057 Google Scholar
  26. Ornelas-Paz J, Quintana-Gallegos BM, Escalante-Minakata P, Reyes-Hernandez J, Perez-Martınez JD, Rios-Velasco C, Ruiz-Cruz S (2018) Relationship between the firmness of Golden Delicious apples and the physicochemical characteristics of the fruits and their pectin during development and ripening. J Food Sci Technol 55:34–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Péroumal A, Adenet S, Rochefort K, Fahrasmane L, Aurore G (2017) Variability of traits and bioactive compounds in the fruit and pulp of six mamey apple (Mammea americana L.) accessions. Food Chem 234:269–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ranganna S (1999) Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruits and vegetable products, 3rd edn. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, BengaluruGoogle Scholar
  29. Tabatabaeefar A, Rajabipour A (2005) Modeling the mass of apples by geometrical attributes. Sci Hortic 105:373–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang X, Li C, Liang D, Zou Y, Li P, Ma F (2015) Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in red-fleshed apples. J Funct Foods 18:1086–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wu J, Gao H, Zhao L, Liao X, Chen F, Wang Z, Hu X (2007) Chemical compositional characterization of some apple cultivars. Food Chem 103:88–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhang Y, Pengmin L, Chen LC (2010) Development changes of carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, and phenolic compounds in ‘Honeycrisp’ apple flesh. Food Chem 123:1013–1018CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pushpendra Kumar
    • 1
  • Shruti Sethi
    • 1
  • R. R. Sharma
    • 1
  • Surender Singh
    • 2
  • Supradip Saha
    • 3
  • V. K. Sharma
    • 4
  • M. K. Verma
    • 5
  • Shashi Kumar Sharma
    • 6
  1. 1.Division of Food Science and Postharvest TechnologyICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Division of MicrobiologyICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Division of Agricultural ChemicalsICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Division of Soil Science and Agricultural ChemistryICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  5. 5.Division of Fruits and Horticultural TechnologyICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  6. 6.Regional Horticultural Research StationReckong Peo, KinnaurIndia

Personalised recommendations