Diversity of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in Delicious group of apple in Western Himalaya
Apple contributes significantly to the livelihood and health of the people living in Himalayan regions. Among others, the Delicious group of apple is known for their health promoting and income generating attributes. However, the systematic investigation on morphological and phytochemical attributes of the apple growing in Indian Himalayan region is poorly known. An altitude-dependent variation in the fruit quality traits and phytochemical diversity was observed. The Royal Delicious was found rich in total tannin, flavonoids, flavonols, antioxidant activity [2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl, Ferric reducing antioxidant power], procyanidin B2, phloridzin and gallic acid; Red Delicious for total phenol and epicatechin and Golden Delicious for chlorogenic acid. The cultivar and altitude-dependent variation of phenolic profile in peel and pulp portion emphasizes genotype-specific biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in regulatory mechanisms. It is suggested that selection of suitable altitude and cultivars is required for harnessing the maximum phytochemical and antioxidant activity for benefits to human consumption.
KeywordsApple High performance liquid chromatography Phenolics Western Himalaya
We thank Director GBPNIHESD for facilities and encouragement. We also thank colleagues of Biodiversity Conservation and Management Thematic group for the support and help. Partial Financial support by the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India (Project No: BT/PR11040/PBD/16/812/2008) is greatly acknowledged.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declares that there is no conflicts of interest.
- Chang C, Yang M, Wen H, Chern J (2002) Estimation of total flavonoids content in Propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 10:178–182Google Scholar
- de Jesús Ornelas-Paz J, Quintana-Gallegos BM, Escalante-Minakata P, Reyes-Hernández J, Pérez-Martínez JD, Rios-Velasco C, Ruiz-Cruz S (2018) Relationship between the firmness of Golden Delicious apples and the physicochemical characteristics of the fruits and their pectin during development and ripening. J Food Sci Technol 55(1):33–41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-017-2758-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Downing DL (ed) (2012) Processed apple products. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Drogoudi PD, Vemmos S, Pantelidis G, Petri E, Tzoutzoukou C, Karayiannis I (2008) Physical characters and antioxidant sugar and mineral nutrient contents in fruit from 29 apricot (Prunus × armeniaca L) cultivars and hybrids. J Agric Food Chem 56(22):10754–10760. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf801995x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hammer Ø, Harper DA, Ryan PD (2001) PAST-paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4(1):9Google Scholar
- Nwinuka NM, Ibeh GO, Ekeke GI (2005) Proximate composition and levels of some toxicants in four commonly consumed spices. J Appl Sci Environ Mgt 9(1):150–155. http://hdl.handle.net/1807/6437
- Šavikin K, Živković J, Zdunić G, Gođevac D, Đorđević B, Dojčinović B, Đorđević N (2014) Phenolic and mineral profiles of four Balkan indigenous apple cultivars monitored at two different maturity stages. J Food Compos Anal 35(2):101–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2014.05.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar