Improving crunchiness and crispness of fried squid rings through innovative tempura coatings: addition of alcohol and CO2 incubation
This study aimed to determine the effect of different uncommon tempura formulations (incubated with CO2 and with added ethanol) on physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of fried coated squids, immediately after frying and also after 48 h of refrigeration storage and subsequent oven reheating. Ethanol addition led to lower levels of moisture and higher of fat in the fried coating, regardless the use of CO2. There were no difference in instrumental colour parameters among all four battered samples. Ethanol added tempuras showed higher crispness and lower maximum force than their water counterparts in an instrumental texture evaluation. Fried squids coated with ethanol added tempuras were rated as crispier and crunchier, even after 2 days of storage and further reheating. Overall, partial substitution of water by ethanol appears as an interesting strategy to increase crispness in tempura coated fried products, especially when the products are stored and reheated before consumption.
KeywordsDeep fat-frying Oven reheating Tempura Crispness Ethanol
This research was supported by the 3rd Regional Programme for Research, Development, and Innovation (Junta de Extremadura, Spain (3PR05B032)). Authors thank Ana Mostazo for her technical assistance.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
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