Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 55, Issue 5, pp 1933–1941 | Cite as

Effects of processing on proximate and fatty acid compositions of six commercial sea cucumber species of Sri Lanka

  • G. Nishanthan
  • P. A. D. A. Kumara
  • M. D. S. T. de Croos
  • D. V. P. Prasada
  • D. C. T. Dissanayake
Original Article


Processing and its impacts on proximate composition and fatty acid profile of six sea cucumber species; Bohadschia marmorata, Stichopus chloronotus, Holothuria spinifera, Thelenota anax, Holothuria scabra and Bohadschia sp. 1 collected from the northwest coast of Sri Lanka were analyzed. Sea cucumbers are processed into bêche-de-mer by both domestic and industrial level processors following the similar steps of cleaning, evisceration, first boiling, salting, second boiling and drying. However, domestically processed bêche-de-mer always reported a higher percentage of moisture, crude ash, crude fat and lower percentage of crude protein than industrially processed products. Although processing resulted in a significant reduction of total SFA and MUFA in fresh individuals of most of these species, total PUFA increased significantly in processed individuals excluding Bohadschia species. Palmitic acid was found to be the most dominant fatty acid in all these species followed by eicosapentaenoic acid, which showed a significant increase in processed products, except Bohadschia sp. 1. Total MUFA were higher than total SFA in all sea cucumber species having exceptions in Bohadchia sp.1 and fresh S. chloronotus. These findings will make a significant contribution to fill the gaps in existing information as no any previous information is available for species like H. spinifera and S. chloronotus.


Bêche-de-mer Proximate composition Fatty acid profile Processing Sea cucumbers 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support received from the National Research Council (NRC) Grant No 15-50. Technical support given by Prof. Savim Kose, Dr. Asitha Cooray and staff members of the Central Instrumentation Facility of the University of Sri Jayewardenepura and Suganth International (Pvt.) Ltd. are highly appreciated.


  1. AOAC (1990) Official methods of analysis of AOAC international, 17th ednGoogle Scholar
  2. Aydin M, Sevgili H, Tufan B et al (2011) Proximate composition and fatty acid profile of three different fresh and dried commercial sea cucumbers from Turkey. Int J Food Sci Technol 46:500–508. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bechtel PJ, Oliveira ACM, Demir N, Smiley S (2012) Chemical composition of the giant red sea cucumber, Parastichopus californicus, commercially harvested in Alaska. Food Sci Nutr 1:63–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37:911–917. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang-Lee MV, Price RJ, Lampila LE (1989) Effect of processing on proximate composition and mineral content of sea cucumbers (Parastichopus spp.). J Food Sci 54:567–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choo P-S (2004) Fisheries, trade and utilization of sea cucumbers in Malaysia. Adv Sea Cucumber Aquac Manag FAO Fish Tech Pap 463:57–68Google Scholar
  7. Conand C (1990) The fishery resources of Pacific island countries. Part 2: Holothurians. In: FAO Fish. Tech. Paper. p 143Google Scholar
  8. Conand C, Byrne M (1993) A review of recent developments in the world sea cucumber fisheries. Mar Fish Rev 55:1–13Google Scholar
  9. Dissanayake DCT, Stefansson G (2010) Abundance and distribution of commercial sea cucumber species in the coastal waters of Sri Lanka. Aquat Living Resour 23:303–313. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dissanayake DCT, Stefansson G (2012) Present status of the commercial sea cucumber fishery off the north-west and east coasts of Sri Lanka. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 92:831–841. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duan X, Zhang M, Mujumdar AS (2007) Studies on the microwave freeze drying technique and sterilization characteristics of cabbage. Dry Technol Int J 25:1725–1731. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fredalina BD, Ridzwan BH, Abidin AAZ et al (1999) Fatty acid compositions in local sea cucumber, Stichopus chloronotus, for wound healing. Gen Pharmacol 33:337–340. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Haider MS, Sultana R, Jamil K et al (2015) A study on proximate composition, amino acid profile, fatty acid profile and some mineral contents in two species of sea cucumber. J Anim Plant Sci 25:168–175Google Scholar
  14. Ibrahim MY, Elamin SM, Gideiri YBA, Ali SM (2015) The proximate composition and the nutritional value of some sea cucumber species inhabiting the Sudanese Red Sea. Food Sci Qual Manag 41:11–17Google Scholar
  15. Kumara PADA, Dissanayake DCT (2017) Priliminary study on broodstock rearing, induced breeding and grow-out culture of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra in Sri Lanka. Aquac Res 48:1058–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li X (2004) Fishery and resource management of tropical sea cucumbers in the islands of the South China Sea. In: Advances in sea cucumber aquaculture and management. Fishers Technical paper 463, FAO, pp 261– 265Google Scholar
  17. Li DT, Chang YQ, Wu ZH et al (2009) Analysis of nutritive composition of body wall in wild sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka at Zhangzi Island in spring and autumn. Fish Sci 28:365–369Google Scholar
  18. Nahla ESESO (2013) Nutritional value of some Egyptian sea cucumbers. Afr J Biotechnol 12:5466–5472. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Neto RR, Wolff GA, Billett DSM et al (2006) The influence of changing food supply on the lipid biochemistry of deep-sea holothurians. Deep Res I Oceanogr Res Pap 53:516–527. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Özer NP, Mol S, Varlık C (2004) Effect of the handling procedures on the chemical composition of sea cucumber. Turkish J Fish Aquat Sci 4:71–74Google Scholar
  21. Prim P, Lawrence JM, Turner RL (1976) Protein, carbohydrate, and lipid levels of the adult body wall of Actinopyga agassizi, Synaptula hydriformis and Pentacta pygmaea (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem 55:307–309. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Purcell SW, Gossuin S, Agudo NS (2009) Status and management of the sea cucumber fishery of La Grande Terre, New Caledonia. In: WorldFish center studies and review N0 1901. The WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia, p 136Google Scholar
  23. Purcell SW, Ngaluafe P, Aram KT, Lalavanua W (2016) Trends in small-scale artisanal fishing of sea cucumbers in Oceania. Fish Res 183:99–110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ram R, Chand RV, Southgate PC (2014) Effects of processing methods on the value of bêche-de-mer from the Fiji islands.
  25. Ridzwan BH, Hanita MH, Nurzafirah M et al (2014) Free fatty acids composition in lipid extracts of several sea cucumbers species from Malaysia. Int J Biosci Biochem Bioinf 4:204–207. Google Scholar
  26. Salarzadeh AR, Afkhami M, Bastami KD et al (2012) Proximate composition of two sea cucumber species Holothuria pavra and Holothuria arenicola in Persian Gulf. Ann Biol Res 3:1305–1311Google Scholar
  27. Simopoulos AP (2002) The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 56:365–379. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wen J, Hu C, Fan S (2010) Chemical composition and nutritional quality of sea cucumbers. J Sci Food Agric 90:2469–2474. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xiang Y-H, Su X-R, Dong M-M (2006) The composition of amino acids and fatty acids in body walls and alimentary canals of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Fish Sci 25:280–282Google Scholar
  30. Yahyav Maziar, Afkhami M, Javadi A et al (2012) Fatty acid composition in two sea cucumber species, Holothuria scabra and Holothuria leucospilata from Qeshm island (Persian Gulf). Afr J Biotechnol 11:2862–2868. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Nishanthan
    • 1
  • P. A. D. A. Kumara
    • 2
  • M. D. S. T. de Croos
    • 3
  • D. V. P. Prasada
    • 4
  • D. C. T. Dissanayake
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of Sri JayewardenepuraGangodawila, NugegodaSri Lanka
  2. 2.Inland Aquatic Resources and Aquaculture DivisionNational Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency (NARA)Crow Island, Colombo 15Sri Lanka
  3. 3.Department of Aquaculture and FisheriesWayamba University of Sri LankaMakandura, GonawilaSri Lanka
  4. 4.Department of Agricultural Economics and Business ManagementUniversity of PeradeniyaPeradeniyaSri Lanka

Personalised recommendations