Effect of sodium chloride concentration on off-flavor removal correlated to glucosinolate degradation and red radish anthocyanin stability
- 15 Downloads
Anthocyanin-rich concentrates from different red radish can be used as natural food colorants. However, the development of off-flavor during extraction has been major challenge in processing industries. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration in phosphoric acidified medium pH 2.5 on removal of off-flavor from red radish anthocyanin. The effect of NaCl concentration on anthocyanin properties was also evaluated. Results showed that the total glucosinolate was highly degraded at high NaCl concentration (< 500 mM) compared with control, leading to higher off-flavor development. Additionally, the glucosinolate degradation was positively and significantly correlated to isothiocyanate, while was negatively and significantly correlated with dimethyl di-, trisulfide, cedrol, triacetin, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. Moreover, total monomeric and color properties of extracted anthocyanins were degraded at high NaCl concentration (< 500 mM) compared with control. The tentative anthocyanin identification by UPLC–TQ–MS showed 12 glycosylated anthocyanins substituted at C3 and C5 in tested anthocyanin extracts. In conclusion, higher NaCl concentration (< 500 mM) could not be useful for red radish off-flavor removal and anthocyanin properties.
KeywordsRed radish Sodium chloride Glucosinolate degradation Monomeric anthocyanins Off-flavor formation
The research was supported in part by the National Program of China (2013AA102204) and Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (2016M590143) and program of “Collaborative innovation center of food safety and quality control in Jiangsu Province”. It was also founded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.
- Bernhard B, Wyllie SG (2008) Fruit and vegetable flavour: recent advances and future prospects. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, pp 75–79Google Scholar
- Goto T, Hoshino T, Ohba M (1976) Stabilization effect of neutral salts on anthocyanins: flavylium salts, anhydrobases and genuine anthocyanins. Agric Biol Chem 40:1593–1596Google Scholar
- Karangwa E, Raymond LV, Abbas S, Song S, Zhang Y, Masamba K, Zhang X (2014) Temperature and cysteine addition effect on formation of sunflower hydrolysate Maillard reaction products and corresponding influence on sensory characteristics assessed by partial least square regression. Food Res Int 57:242–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kjær A, Øgaard Madsen J, Maeda Y, Ozawa Y, Uda Y (1978) Volatiles in distillates of fresh radish of Japanese and Kenyan origin. Agric Biol Chem 42:1715–1721Google Scholar
- Kottman SD (2011) Production of an anthocyanin-rich vegetable juice concentrate from cull red radishes for use as a food colorant. (Electronic Thesis or Dissertation). The Ohio State University. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/. Accessed 3 Jan 2017
- Møller P, Plöger A, Sørensen H (1985) Quantitative analysis of total glucosinolate content in concentrated extracts from double low rapeseed by the Pd-glucosinolate complex method. In: H. Sørensen (Ed), Advances in the Production and Utilization of Cruciferous Crops. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 97–110Google Scholar
- Rizzi GP (2002) Biosynthesis of aroma compounds containing nitrogen heteroatomic aroma compounds. ACS Symp Ser 826:140–157Google Scholar