Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 1074–1082 | Cite as

Quality of pomegranate pomace as affected by drying method

  • Marina Cano-Lamadrid
  • Krzysztof Lech
  • Ángel Calín-SánchezEmail author
  • Ema Carina Rosas-Burgos
  • Adam Figiel
  • Aneta Wojdyło
  • Malwina Wasilewska
  • Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina
Original Article


During the industrial manufacturing of pomegranate juice, large amounts of pomace are produced. The aim of this work was to find the effective method to dry pomegranate pomace to open new commercial applications for this co-product. The effects of three drying methods: (i) convective drying (CD) at 50, 60, and 70 °C; (ii) vacuum microwave drying (VMD) at 240, 360, and 480 W, and (iii) a combined method (CPD–VMFD); convective pre-drying (60 °C) followed by vacuum microwave finish drying (360 W), on drying kinetics and quality of PomP (pomegranate pomace obtained after preparing pomegranate juice by squeezing only arils) were evaluated. The shortest treatments were VMD at 240 and 360 W (52 and 33 min, respectively); besides, these treatments led to interesting values of the green–red coordinate, a*, (12.2 and 4.1, respectively), total phenolic content (4.0 and 4.1 mg eq gallic acid g−1 dry weight, respectively), and antioxidant activity (30.8 and 29.0 µmol g−1 dry weight, respectively). On the other hand, this study demonstrated that this co-product is a rich source of punicic acid (average value = 66.4%), being a good opportunity for the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Moreover, no significant changes in the fatty acid profile was observed as affected by the drying treatments, and no off-flavors were generated by any of the drying methods.


Convective drying Vacuum-microwave drying Color Descriptive sensory analysis Antioxidant activity Polyphenols 


a, b

Function parameters


Antioxidant activity


Analysis of variance


Convective drying


Conjugated linolenic acid


Convective pre-drying


Combined drying (convective predrying–vacuum-microwave finish drying)


High-performance liquid chromatography


Drying constants (min−1)


Moisture ratio


Monounsaturated fatty acids


Microwave power (W)


Pomegranate pomace


Polyunsaturated fatty acids


Coefficient of determination


Root mean square error


Saturated fatty acids


Air temperature (°C)


Time (min)


Total polyphenols content


Vacuum-microwave drying


Vacuum-microwave finish drying



The authors are grateful to the project AGL2013-45922-C2-2-R (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, MINECO, Spain). Author Marina Cano-Lamadrid was funded by a FPU grant (FPU15/02158) from the Spanish Ministry of Education..


  1. Akhtar S, Ismail T, Fraternale D, Sestili P (2015) Pomegranate peel and peel extracts: chemistry and food features. Food Chem 174:417–425. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcaraz-Mármol F, Nuncio-Jáuregui N, Calín-Sánchez Á, Carbonell-Barrachina ÁA, Martínez JJ, Hernández F (2015) Determination of fatty acid composition in arils of 20 pomegranates cultivars grown in Spain. Sci Hortic 197:712–718. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aruna P, Venkataramanamma D, Singh AK, Singh RP (2016) Health benefits of punicic acid: a review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 15(1):16–27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhol S, Lanka D, Bosco SJD (2015) Quality characteristics and antioxidant properties of breads incorporated with pomegranate whole fruit bagasse. J Food Sci Technol 53(3):1717–1721. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C (1995) Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT Food Sci Technol 28(1):25–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Calín-Sánchez Á, Figiel A, Hernández F, Melgarejo P, Lech K, Carbonell-Barrachina ÁA (2013) Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) arils and rind as affected by drying method. Food Bioprocess Technol 6:1644–1654. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Calín-Sánchez Á, Figiel A, Lech K, Szumny A, Martínez-Tomé J, Carbonell-Barrachina ÁA (2015) Dying methods affect the aroma of Origanum majorana L. analyzed by GC–MS and descriptive sensory analysis. Ind Crops Prod 74:218–227. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cano-Lamadrid M, Lech K, Michalska A, Wasilewska M, Figiel A, Wojdyło A, Carbonell-Barrachina AA (2017) Influence of osmotic dehydration pre-treatment and combined drying method on physico-chemical and sensory properties of pomegranate arils, cultivar Mollar de Elche. Food Chem 232(1):306–315. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark D (1996) Microwave processing of materials. Annu Rev Mater Sci 26:299–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Figiel A (2010) Drying kinetics and quality of beetroots dehydrated by combination of convective and vacuum-microwave methods. J Food Eng 98(4):461–470. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guiné RPF, Barroca MJ (2012) Effect of drying treatments on texture and color of vegetables (pumpkin and green pepper). Food Bioprocess Technol 90(1):58–63. Google Scholar
  12. Gullon B, Pinatado ME, Perez-Alvarez JA, Viuda-Martos M (2016) Assessment of polyphenolic profile and antibacterial activity of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) flour obtained from co-product of juice extraction. Food Control 59:94–98. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hasnaoui N, Wathelet B, Jiménez-Araujo A (2014) Valorization of pomegranate peel from 12 cultivars: dietary fibre composition, antioxidant capacity and functional properties. Food Chem 160:196–203. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kang JH, Song KB (2017) Effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) pomace extract as a washing agent on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on fresh produce. Int J Food Sci Technol 52(10):2295–2302. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lario Y, Sendra E, García-Pérez J, Fuentes C, Sayas-Barberá E, Fernández-López J, Pérez-Alvarez JA (2004) Preparation of high dietary fiber powder from lemon juice by-products. Innov Food Sci Emerg 5(1):113–117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lech K, Figiel A, Wojdyło A, Korzeniowska M, Serowik M, Szarycz M (2015) Drying kinetics and bioactivity of beetroot slices pretreated in concentrated chokeberry juice and dried with vacuum microwaves. Dry Technol 33(13):1644–1653. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mathlouthi M (2001) Water content, water activity, water structure and the stability of foodstuffs. Food Control 12:409–417. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nijhuis HH, Torringa HM, Muresan S, Yuksel D, Leguijt C, Kloek W (1998) Approaches to improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetables. Trends Food Sci Technol 9(1):13–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nowicka P, Wojdyło A, Lech K, Figiel A (2014) Influence of osmodehydration pretreatment and combined drying method on the bioactive potential of sour cherry fruits. Food Bioprocess Technol 8(4):824–836. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Singh DB, Kingsly ARP (2008) Effect of convective drying on quality of anardana. Indian J Hortic 65(4):413–416Google Scholar
  21. Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventós RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 299:152–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Stewart OJ, Raghavan GSV, Orsat V, Golden KD (2003) The effect of drying on unsaturated fatty acids and trypsin inhibitor activity in soybean. Process Biochem 39(4):483–489. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Trigueros L, Sendra E (2015) Fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in fermented milks as assessed by direct methylation. LWT Food Sci Technol 60(1):315–319. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Viuda-Martos M, Ruiz-Navajas Y, Martin-Sánchez A, Sánchez-Zapata E, Fernández-López J, Sendra E, Sayas-Barberá E, Navarro C, Pérez-Álvarez JA (2012) Chemical, physico-chemical and functional properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) bagasses powder co-product. J Food Eng 110(2):220–224. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zubair M, Nybom H, Lindholm C, Rumpunen K (2011) Major polyphenols in aerial organs of greater plantain (Plantago major L.), and effects of drying temperature on polyphenol contents in the leaves. Sci Hortic 128(4):523–529. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marina Cano-Lamadrid
    • 1
  • Krzysztof Lech
    • 2
  • Ángel Calín-Sánchez
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ema Carina Rosas-Burgos
    • 3
  • Adam Figiel
    • 2
  • Aneta Wojdyło
    • 4
  • Malwina Wasilewska
    • 2
  • Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research Group “Food Quality and Safety”Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela (EPSO), Universidad Miguel Hernández de ElcheOrihuelaSpain
  2. 2.Institute of Agricultural EngineeringWrocław University of Environmental and Life SciencesWrocławPoland
  3. 3.Departamento de Investigación y Posgrado en AlimentosUniversidad de SonoraHermosilloMexico
  4. 4.Department of Fruit and Vegetable ProcessingWrocław University of Environmental and Life SciencesWrocławPoland

Personalised recommendations