Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 992–1002 | Cite as

Antioxidant activity, fatty acids characterization and oxidative stability of Gouda cheese fortified with mango (Mangifera indica L.) kernel fat

  • Imran Taj Khan
  • Muhammad NadeemEmail author
  • Muhammad Imran
  • Muhammad Ajmal
  • Sadaqat Ali
Original Article


Effect of mango kernel fat (MKF) on antioxidant characteristics and lipolysis of Gouda cheese was investigated. Milk fat (3.5%) was partially replaced with MKF i.e. 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T1, T2, T3 and T4). Cheese prepared from 100% milk fat served as control. Cheese samples were ripened for 90 days at 6 ± 1 °C and analysed at 0, 45 and 90 days of ripening. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 14 ± 0.35, 129 ± 0.75, 188 ± 2.52, 267 ± 10.61 and 391 ± 8.46 mg GAE/g. Total flavonoid content of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 0.22 ± 0.03, 1.47 ± 0.09, 3.62 ± 0.15, 5.88 ± 0.35, 8.29 ± 0.63 mg quercetin equivalent/ml. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of control and experimental samples increased throughout the ripening period. DPPH free radicals scavenging activity of 90 days old control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 16.38 ± 0.0.26e, 30.47 ± 0.64d, 68.62 ± 0.91c, 73.29 ± 0.85b, 92.61 ± 1.44a %. HPLC characterization revealed the existence of mangiferin, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin and chlorogenic acid in MKF fortified Gouda cheese. Fortification of MKF increased the concentration of C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 in cheese. The concentration of C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 in control were 24.55 ± 0.95, 1.76 ± 0.09 and 0.31 ± 0.02%. While, the concentration of C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 in T4 were 30.11 ± 1.34, 2.79 ± 2.79 and 0.92 ± 0.11%. MKF fortified Gouda cheese had better oxidative stability and sensory characteristics. These results evidenced that antioxidant capacity, unsaturated fatty acids and oxidative stability of Gouda cheese can be improved with MKF.


Mango kernel fat Gouda cheese Antioxidant characteristics Lipolysis 



Financial assistance for this research project was provided by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (Project No. HEC/NRPU/14/33).


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Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Imran Taj Khan
    • 1
  • Muhammad Nadeem
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Imran
    • 2
  • Muhammad Ajmal
    • 1
  • Sadaqat Ali
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dairy TechnologyUniversity of Veterinary and Animal SciencesLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Home Economics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Institute of Home and Food SciencesGovernment College University FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan

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