Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 54, Issue 9, pp 2789–2796 | Cite as

Therapeutic evaluation of grain based functional food formulation in a geriatric animal model

  • Deepa Teradal
  • Neena Joshi
  • Ravindranath H. Aladakatti
Original Article


This study investigates the effect of wholesome grain based functional food formulation, on clinical and biochemical parameters in 24–30 months old Wistar albino geriatric rats, corresponding to human age 60–75 years. Animals were randomly divided into five, groups. Experimental diets were compared to the basal rat diet (Group I). Four food, formulation were—wheat based (Group II), finger millet based (Group III), wheat based, diet + fenugreek seed powder (Group IV), finger millet based diet + fenugreek powder, (Group V). These five types of diets were fed to the experimental rats for 6 weeks. Hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated. The results showed that, feed intake was influenced by the type of feed. Diets supplemented with, fenugreek (Group IV) caused a significant increase in serum hemoglobin. The total serum protein values were significantly highest in Group III. Total serum albumin was found to be lower in Group I and highest in Group II. The concentration of BUN was highest in Group I and the lowest in control diet. Serum cholesterol and glucose were significantly reduced in Group IV. Several hematological and serum mineral values were influenced by the type of diet. The type of diet did not influence the organs weight. A moderate hypoglycemic and hypercholesterolemic effect was observed in composite mix fed rats. This study clearly justifies the recommendation to use wholesome grain based functional foods for geriatric population.


Geriatric population Functional foods Composite mix Hypoglycemic food Antihypocholestrolemic food 



The authors are thankful to Rajeev Gandhi National Fellowship, New Delhi for the financial assistance and University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore for providing all the facilities during research period.


  1. Adinortey MB, Sarfo JK, Adukpo GE, Dzotsi E, Kusi S, Ahmed MA, Abdul Gafaru O (2012) Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity assessment of hydro-alcoholic root extract of Paullinia pinnata on haematological and biochemical parameters Biol Med 4:121–125Google Scholar
  2. Annida B, Prince MSP (2004) Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lower lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. J Med Food 7(2):153–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asharani VT, Jayadeep A, Malleshi NG (2010) Natural antioxidants in edible flours of selected small millets. Int J Food Prop 13:41–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey SA, Zidell RH, Perry RW (2004) Relationships between organ weight and body/brain weight in the rat: what is the best analytical. Toxicol Pathol 32:448–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brune M, Rossander-Hulten L, Halberg L, Gleerup A, Sandberg AS (1992) Iron absorption from bread in humans: inhibiting effects of cereal fiber, phytate and inositol phosphates with different numbers of phosphate groups. J Nutr 122(3):442–449Google Scholar
  6. FAO (1998) Carbohydrates in human nutrition: report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, 14-18 April 1997, FAO food and nutrition paper 66. Food and Agriculture Organization, RomeGoogle Scholar
  7. Farag RS, Mahmoud EA, Basuny AM, Rehab FM, Ali (2006) Influence of crude olive leaf juice on rat liver and kidney functions. Int J Food Sci Technol 41:790–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Flynn A, Moreiras O, Stehle P, Fletcher RJ, Mueller DJG, Rolland V (2003) Vitamins and minerals: a model for safe addition to foods. Eur J Nutr 42(2):118–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gopalan C, Rama S, Balasubramanian SC (2000) Nutritive value of Indian foods. National institute of nutrition, Indian council of medical research, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  10. Gunger N, Sengual M (2008) Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content and selected physicochemical properties of white mulberry (Morus Alba L.) fruits. Int J Food Prop 11:44–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hallifrisch J, Behall KM (2000) Improvements in insulin and glucose responses related to grains. Cereal Foods World 45:66–69Google Scholar
  12. Huggett AC, Schliter B (1996) Research needs for establishing the safety of functional foods. Nutr Rev 54:S143–S148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hurrell R, Egli I (2010) Iron bioavailabilty and dietary reference values. Am J Clin Nutr 91:1461S–1467SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kaur C, Kapoor L (2004) Bioactive non-nutritive health promoting factors as antioxidants, photochemical, essential fatty acids and dietary fibre. Int J Food Sci Nutr 6:67–72Google Scholar
  15. Kilic A, Akay T (2008) A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: biochemical and histopathological investigation. Food Chem Toxicol 46:1164–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krondl M, Coleman P, Daisy L (2008) Helping older adults meet nutritional challenges. J Nutr Elder 27(3):205–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kronfeld DS, Medway W (1969) Blood chemistry. In: Medway W, Prier JE, Wilkinson JS (eds) Textbook of Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 12th edn. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, p 522Google Scholar
  18. Malley L, Everds NE, Reynolds J, Mann PC, Lamb I, Rood T, Schmidt J, Layton RJ, Prochaska LM, Mattsson JL, Delaney B (2007) Subchronic feeding study of DAS-59122-7 maize grain in Sprague-Dawley rats. Food Chem Toxicol 45:1277–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Namiki M (1990) Antioxidant/antimutagens in food. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 29:273–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Penha LAO, Fonseca ICB, Mandarino JM, Benassi VT (2007) A soja como alimento: valor nutricional, beneficios para a saude e cultivo organico. Boletim do Centro de Pesquisa de Processamento de Alimentos 25:91–102Google Scholar
  21. Raghuramulu (2003) National Institute of Nutrition Manual 360–365Google Scholar
  22. Reddy DS (2007) Preclinical and clinical behavior paradigms for testing drugs that affect learning processes. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 20:29Google Scholar
  23. Sanders ME (1998) Overview of functional foods: emphasis on probiotic bacteria. Int Dairy J 8:341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Saravanan M, Ignacimuthu S (2015) Hypocholesterolemic effect of Indian medicinal plants—a review. Med chem J 5(1):040–049Google Scholar
  25. Schilter B, Andersson C, Anton R, Constable A, Kleiner J, O'Brien J, Renwick AG, Korver O, Smit F, Walker R; Natural Toxin Task Force of the European Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (2003) Guidance for the safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations with use of food and food supplements. Food Chem Toxicol 41(12):1625–1649Google Scholar
  26. Seralini GE, Mesnage R, Clair E, Gress S, Vendomois DE, Dominique CD (2011) Genetically modified crops safety assessments: present limits and possible improvements. Environ Sci Eur 23:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Singh AS, Pal DT, Mandal BC, Singh P, Pathak NN (2002) Studies on changes in some of blood constituents of adult cross-bred cattle fed different levels of extracted rice bran. Pak. J. Nutr 1:95–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Slavin J (2004) Whole grains and human health. Nutr Res Rev 17:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Slavin JL, Martini PC, Jacobs D, Marquart L (1999) Plausible mechanisms for protectiveness of whole grains. Am J Clin Nutr 70:459S–463SGoogle Scholar
  30. Stanner SA, Hughes J, Kelly CN, Buttriss J (2004) A review of epidemiological evidence for the antioxidant hypothesis. Public Health Nutr 7:407–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Teradal D (2013) Evaluation of grain based wholesome functional foods for geriatric population, PhD thesis submitted to the University of Agricultural Sciences Bengaluru, Karnataka, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  32. Waugh A, Grant A (2001) Anatomy and physiology in health and illness, 9th edn. Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier Science Limited, pp 59–70Google Scholar
  33. Ziemer CJ, Gibson GR (1998) An overview of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in the functional food concept: perspectives and future strategies. Int Dairy J 8:473–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deepa Teradal
    • 1
  • Neena Joshi
    • 2
  • Ravindranath H. Aladakatti
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Post Harvest TechnologyCollege of Horticulture, University of Horticultural ScienceBagalkotIndia
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and NutritionGKVK, UASBengaluruIndia
  3. 3.Central Animal FacilityIndian Institute of ScienceBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations