Levels and formation of α-dicarbonyl compounds in beverages and the preventive effects of flavonoids
- 290 Downloads
Methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO), α-dicarbonyl compounds found in the Maillard reaction, progressively and irreversibly modify proteins. Beverages are an exogenous source of α-dicarbonyl compounds and may potentially increase MGO and GO levels in vivo. Using GC-FID method, we detected the MGO and GO contents of 86 beverages in Chinese supermarkets. The highest MGO and GO 587.5 µg/100 mL and 716.7 µg/100 mL respectively found in soyamilk and coffee. Herbal beverages, which contained bioactive components, had lower average levels of MGO (48.1 µg/100 mL) and GO (25.9 µg/100 mL). A box-and-whisker plot was used to display variation of the same group drinks, and comparing distributions between six different groups. It was further discovered that fat, protein and flavonoids, in addition to sweeteners, had notable effects on the formation of MGO and GO in soybean milk. The result of LC/MS indicated that quercetin could prevent the formation of MGO by trapping MGO to form the mono-MGO and di-MGO adducts during soybean milk manufacturing.
Keywordsα-Dicarbonyl compounds Methylglyoxal Glyoxal Beverages Soy milk
This work was supported by funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31571783) to L. Lv.
Compliance with ethics standards
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest of any author.
Human and animal rights
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
- Barros A, Rodrigues J, Almeida P, Oliva-Teles M (1999) Determination of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl in selected beer and wine, by HPLC with UV spectrophotometric detection, after derivatization with o-phenylenediamine. J Liq Chromatogr Relat Technol 22:2061–2069. doi: 10.1081/JLC-100101786 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lo TWC, Westwood ME, McLellan AC, Selwood T, Thornalley PJ (1994) Binding and modification of proteins by methylglyoxal under physiological conditions. A kinetic and mechanistic study with N alpha-acetylarginine, N alpha-acetylcysteine, and N alpha-acetyllysine, and bovine serum albumin. J Biol Chem 269:32299–32305Google Scholar
- Revel Gd, Pripis-Nicolau L, Barbe JC, Bertrand A (2000) The detection of α-dicarbonyl compounds in wine by formation of quinoxaline derivatives. J Sci Food Agric 80:102–108. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000101)80:1<102:AID-JSFA493>3.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Weerawatanakorn M (2013) Dicarbonyl compounds and sugar contents of Thai commercial beverages. J Sci Technol 35:631–639Google Scholar
- Yamaguchi M, Ishida J, Xuan ZX, Nakamura A, Yoshitake T (1994) Determination of glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacethyl, and 2,3-pentanedione in fermented foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Liq Chromatogr 17:203–211. doi: 10.1080/10826079408013445 CrossRefGoogle Scholar