Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 54, Issue 5, pp 1304–1311 | Cite as

Use of chitosan coating in increasing the shelf life of liquid smoked Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillet

  • Fábio Marcel da Silva Santos
  • Ana Irene Martins da Silva
  • Cláudia Brandão Vieira
  • Mayra Horácio de Araújo
  • André Luis Coelho da Silva
  • Maria das Graças Carneiro-da-Cunha
  • Bartolomeu Warlene Silva de SouzaEmail author
  • Ranilson de Souza Bezerra
Original Article


The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of liquid smoking and chitosan coating on the shelf life of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets. Fillets without liquid smoked and chitosan coating (control), liquid smoked fillets (LS), and liquid smoked and chitosan coated fillets (LSCh) were stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 30 days. The physicochemical (pH, moisture content, water activity—aw, color, texture, total volatile bases nitrogen—TVB-N and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances—TBARS) and microbiological analyses (mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts) and the electrophoresis profile of samples were carried out. Physicochemical parameters, such as TVB-N and TBARS, were reduced in the tilapia fillets with liquid smoking. The presence of the coating of chitosan was effective for the control of the microorganisms during storage. This work showed that the addition of a chitosan coating in liquid-smoked fillets further enhanced the effect of preservation.


Polyssacharide Packaging Coating Chitosan Antimicrobial Liquid smoking Oreochromis niloticus 



The authors express their gratitude to the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for research grants and fellowship (BWSS, MGCC).


  1. Ababouch LH, Souibri L, Rhaliby K, Ouahdi O, Battal M, Busta FF (1996) Quality changes in sardines (Sardina pilchardus) stored in ice and at ambient temperature. Food Microbiol 13:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almeida Filho ES, Sigarini CO, Ribeiro JN, Delmondes EC, Stelatto E, Araújo Júnior A (2002) Características microbiológicas de “Pintado” (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) comercializado em supermercados e feira livre, no município de Cuiabá-MT. R Hig Alim 16(99):84–88Google Scholar
  3. Ashie IN, Simpson BK, Smith JP (1996a) Mechanisms for controlling enzymatic reactions in foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 36(1–2):1–30Google Scholar
  4. Ashie IN, Simpson BK, Smith JP (1996b) Spoilage and shelf-life extension of fresh fish and shellfish. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 36(1–2):87–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buege JA, Aust SD (1978) Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 52:32–34Google Scholar
  6. Cahú TB, Santos SD, Carolina AM, Córdula CR, Chavante SF, Carvalho LB Jr, Nader HB, Bezerra RS (2012) Recovery of protein, chitin, carotenoids and glycosaminoglycans from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) processing waste. Process Biochem 47:570–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campos CA, Rodríguez Ó, Losada V, Aubourg SP, Barros-Velázquez J (2005) Effects of storage in ozonised slurry ice on the sensory and microbial quality of sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Int J Food Microbiol 103:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cardoso NLC, André MCDPB, Serafini AB (2003) Avaliação microbiológica de carne de peixe comercializada em supermercados da cidade de Goiânia, GO. R Hig Alim 17(109):81–87Google Scholar
  9. Cornu M, Beaufort A, Rudelle S, Laloux L, Bergis H, Miconnet N et al (2006) Effect of temperature, water-phase salty and phenolic contents on Listeria monocytogenes growth rates on cold-smoked salmon and evaluation of secondary models. Int J Food Microbiol 106:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Devlieghere F, Vermeulen A, Debevere J (2004) Chitosan: antimicrobial activity, interactions with food components and applicability as a coating on fruit and vegetables. Food Microbiol 21:703–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duan JY, Cherian G, Zhao YY (2010) Quality enhancement in fresh and frozen lingcod (Ophiodon elongates) fillets by employment of fish oil incorporated chitosan coatings. Food Chem 119:524–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dutta PK, Tripathi S, Mehrotra GK, Dutta J (2009) Perspectives for chitosan based antimicrobial films in food applications. Food Chem 114(4):1173–1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fan WJ, Sun JX, Chen YC, Qiu J, Zhang Y, Chi YL (2009) Effects of chitosan coating on quality and shelf life of silver carp during frozen storage. Food Chem 115(1):66–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2013) Cultured aquatic species information. Programme. Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). Accessed 2 July 2016
  15. Gallaher D, Gallaher C, Mahrt G, Carr T, Hollingshead C, Hesslink R et al (2002) A glucomannan and chitosan fiber supplement decreases plasma cholesterol and increases cholesterol excretion in overweight normocholesterolemic humans. J Am Coll Nutr 21(5):428–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hultmann L, Rørå AMB, Steinsland I, Skåra T, Rustada T (2004) Proteolytic activity and properties of proteins in smoked salmon (Salmo salar)—effects of smoking temperature. Food Chem 85:377–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. IAL (2008) Métodos físico-químicos para análise de alimentos, 4th edn. Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, pp 104–105Google Scholar
  18. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) (1986) Micro-organisms in foods 2. Sampling for microbiological analysis: principles and specific applications. University of Toronto Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  19. Jeon Y-I, Kamil JYVA, Shahidi F (2002) Chitosan as an edible invisible film for quality preservation of herring and Atlantic cod. J Agric Food Chem 20:5167–5178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jeyasekaran G, Ganesan P, Anandaraj R, Shakila RJ, Sukumar D (2006) Quantitative and qualitative studies on the bacteriological quality of Indian white shrimp (Penaeus indicus) stored in dry ice. Food Microbiol 23(6):526–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kjällstrand J, Petersson G (2001) Phenolic antioxidants in wood smoke. Sci Total Environ 277:69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Laemmli UK (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227:680–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li T, Li J, Hu W, Li X (2013) Quality enhancement in refrigerated red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fillets using chitosan coatings containing natural preservatives. Food Chem 138:821–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lingbeck JM, Cordero P, O’Bryan CA, Johnson MG, Ricke SC, Crandall PG (2014) Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation. Meat Sci 97(2):197–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Løvdal T (2015) The microbiology of cold smoked salmon. Food Control 54:360–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lund KE, Nielsen HH (2001) Proteolysis in salmon (Salmo salar) during cold storage: effects of storage time and smoking process. J Food Biochem 25(5):379–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Malle P, Poumeyrol M (1989) A new chemical criterion for the quality control of fish—trimethylamine total volatile basic nitrogen (percent). J Food Protect 52(6):419–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. MAPA (1952) Brasil. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Decreto-Lei n. 30.691, de 29 de março de 1952. Regulamento da inspeção industrial e sanitária de produtos de origem animal. Diário Oficial da República Federativa do Brasil. Brasília, DFGoogle Scholar
  29. Ojagh SM, Rezaei M, Razavi SH, Hosseini SMH (2010) Effect of chitosan coatings enriched with cinnamon oil on the quality of refrigerated rainbow trout. Food Chem 120:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pereira de Abreu DA, Maroto J, Villalba Rodríguez K, Cruz JM (2012) Antioxidants from barley husks impregnated in films of low-density polyethylene and their effect over lipid deterioration of frozen cod (Gadus morhua). J Sci Food Agric 92:427–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rabea EI, Badawy ME, Stevens CV, Smagghe G, Steurbaut W (2003) Chitosan as antimicrobial agent: applications and mode of action. Biomacromolecules 4(6):1457–1465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ruiz-Capillas C, Moral A (2001) Correlation between biochemical and sensory quality indices in hake stored in ice. Food Res Int 34(5):441–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Saloko S, Darmadji P, Setiaji B, Pranoto Y (2014) Antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of liquid smoke nanocapsules using chitosan and maltodextrin and its application on tuna fish preservation. Food Biosci 7:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shahidi F, Arachchi JKV, Jeon YJ (1999) Food applications of chitin and chitosans. Trends Food Sci Technol 10(2):37–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shenderyuk VI, Bykowski P (1989) Salting and marinating of fish. In: Sikorski ZE (ed) Seafood: resources, nutritional composition and preservation. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  36. Souza BWS, Cerqueira MA, Ruiz HA, Martins JT, Casariego A, Teixeira JA et al (2010) Effect of chitosan-based coatings on the shelf life of salmon (Salmon salar). J Agric Food Chem 58:11456–11462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Varlet V, Prost C, Serot T (2007) Volatile aldehydes in smoked fish: analysis methods, occurence and mechanisms of formation. Food Chem 105:1536–1556CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fábio Marcel da Silva Santos
    • 1
  • Ana Irene Martins da Silva
    • 2
  • Cláudia Brandão Vieira
    • 2
  • Mayra Horácio de Araújo
    • 2
  • André Luis Coelho da Silva
    • 3
  • Maria das Graças Carneiro-da-Cunha
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  • Bartolomeu Warlene Silva de Souza
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ranilson de Souza Bezerra
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de BioquímicaUniversidade Federal de Pernambuco/UFPERecifeBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Engenharia de PescaUniversidade Federal do Ceará/UFCFortalezaBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia MolecularUniversidade Federal do Ceará/UFCFortalezaBrazil
  4. 4.Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Departamento de BioquímicaUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  5. 5.Laboratório de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami (LIKA)UFPERecifeBrazil

Personalised recommendations