Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 54, Issue 6, pp 1377–1383 | Cite as

Evaluation of fatty acid profile, color characteristics, oxidative quality and stability of common Kilka (Clupeonella cultriventris caspia) oil obtained by various extraction techniques

  • Ruhollah Sayyad
  • Mahdi Ghomi
Original Article


This study aimed to evaluate the impact of various oil extraction procedures on yield, color properties, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of common Kilka (Clupeonella cultriventris caspia) oil. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with carbon dioxide, than other techniques (wet reduction, ammonia and enzymatic extractions), showed the highest oil yield (96.94%), the best oxidative and color characteristics, with 0.68 mg KOH/g oil, 2.62 meq O2/kg oil, 6.5 and 5.36 in terms of acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), yellowness and redness, respectively, and have the highest total of unsaturated fatty acids average (10.33), especially the omega-3 family. Furthermore, the oil obtained by SFE had the best oxidative parameters; AV, PV and thiobarbituric acid values, during the whole 90 days of storage time at 4 °C. Therefore, the SFE is the most effective procedure at obtaining the oil from common Kilka tissue than other methods studied in this research.


Common Kilka oil Oil extraction Oil stability Oxidative quality Oil color quality 



Supercritical fluid extraction


Acid value


Peroxide value


Thiobarbituric acid


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors have no conflict of interest.


  1. Adeniyi OD, Bawa AA (2006) Mackerel (Scomberscrombrus) oil extraction and evaluation as raw materials for industrial utilization. Leonardo J Sci 8:33–42Google Scholar
  2. American Oil Chemist’s Society (2009) Official methods and recommended practices of the American oil chemists society, 6th edn. AOCS Press, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrento S, Marques A, Teixeira B, Mendes R, Bandarra N, Vaz-Pires P, Nunes ML (2010) Chemical composition, cholesterol, fatty acid and amino acid in two populations of brown crab (Cancer pagurus): ecological and human health implications. J Food Compos Anal 23:716–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boran G, Karac H, Boran M (2006) Changes in the quality of fish oils due to storage temperature and time. Food Chem 98:693–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chantachum S, Benjakul S, Sriwirat N (2000) Separation and quality of fish oil from precooked and non-precooked tuna heads. Food Chem 69:289–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Connor WE (2000) Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 71:171–175Google Scholar
  7. Dunford NT, Goto M, Temelli F (1998) Modelling of oil extraction with supercritical CO2 from Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) at different moisture contents. J Supercrit Fluids 13:303–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fazli H, Zhang IKC, Hay DE, Lee CW (2009) Stock assessment and management implications of anchovy kilka (Clupeonella engrauliformis) in Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea. Fish Res 100:103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ghomi MR, Nikoo M, Babaei Z (2012) Fatty acid composition in farmed great sturgeon (Huso huso). Comp Clin Pathol 21:111–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hao SX, Huang H, Li LH, Yang XQ, Cen JW, Lin WL, Wei Y (2013) Extraction of fish oil from the muscle of sturgeon using supercritical fluids. Adv Mater Res 657:1975–1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. King JW, Johnson JH, Friedrich JP (1989) Extraction of fat tissue from meat products with supercritical carbon dioxide. J Agric Food Chem 37:951–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lawrence GD (2010) The fats of life: essential fatty acids in health and disease, 18th edn. Rutgers University Press, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  13. Letisse M, Rozieres M, Hiol A, Sergent M, Comeau L (2006) Enrichment of EPA and DHA from sardine by supercritical fluid extraction without organic modifier: I. Optimization of extraction conditions. J Supercrit Fluids 38:27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Linder M, Fanni J, Parmentier M (2005) Proteolytic extraction of salmon oil and PUFA concentration by lipases. Mar Biotechnol 7:70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moss CW, Lambert MA, Mervin WH (1974) Comparison of rapid methods for analysis of bacterial fatty acids. Appl Microbiol 28:80–85Google Scholar
  16. Nascimento RJS, Couri S, Antoniassi R, Freitas SP (2008) Fatty acids composition of açaí pulp oil obtained by enzymatic technology and hexane. Rev Bras Frutic 30:498–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Noriega-Rodríguez JA, Ortega-García J, Angulo-Guerrero O, García HS, Medina-Juárez LA, Gámez-Meza N (2010) Oil production from sardine (Sardinops sagax caerulea) Producción de aceite a partir de sardina (Sardinops sagax caerulea). CyTA J Food 7:173–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Osman H, Suriah AR, Law EC (2001) Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of selected marine fish in Malaysian water. Food Chem 73:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pirestani S, Sahari MA, Barzegar M, Nikoopour H (2010) Lipid, cholesterol and fatty acid profile of some commercially important fish species from south Caspian Sea. J Food Biochem 34:886–895Google Scholar
  20. Rubio-Rodríguez N, de Diego-Rupérez S, Beltrán S, Jaime I, Sanz MT, Rovira J (2008) Supercritical fluid extraction of the omega-3 rich oil contained in hake (Merluccius capensisMerluccius paradoxus) byproducts: study of the influence of process parameters on the extraction yield and oil quality. J Supercrit Fluids 47:215–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rubio-Rodríguez N, de Diego SM, Beltrán S, Jaime I, Sanz MT, Rovira J (2012) Supercritical fluid extraction of fish oil from fish by-products: a comparison with other extraction methods. J Food Eng 109:238–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sahena F, Zaidul ISM, Jinap S, Yazid AM, Khatib A, Norulaini NAN (2010) Fatty acid compositions of fish oil extracted from different parts of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) using various techniques of supercritical CO2 extraction. Food Chem 120:879–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Soto C, Chamy R, Zúniga ME (2007) Enzymatic hydrolysis and pressing conditions effect on borage oil extraction by cold pressing. Food Chem 102:834–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Vaquero EM, Beltran S, Sanz MT (2006) Extraction of fat from pigskin with supercritical carbon dioxide. J Supercrit Fluids 37:142–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Weber J, Bochi VC, Ribeiro CP, Victório A, Emanuelli T (2008) Effect of different cooking methods on the oxidation, proximate and fatty acid composition of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) fillets. Food Chem 106:140–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zhang Y, Li S, Yin C, Jiang D, Yan F, Xu T (2012) Response surface optimization of aqueous enzymatic oil extraction from bayberry (Myrica rubra) kernels. Food Chem 135:304–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science and TechnologyUniversity of KhazarMahmudabadIran

Personalised recommendations