Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 54, Issue 3, pp 735–742 | Cite as

Composition of volatile aromatic compounds and minerals of tarhana enriched with cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis)

  • Hasan Temiz
  • Zekai Tarakçı
Original Article


Different concentrations of cherry laurel pulp (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) were used to produce tarhana samples. Volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content were investigated. Volatile aromatic compounds were analyzed by using GC–MS with SPME fiber and minor mineral values were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The statistical analysis showed that addition of pulp affected volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content significantly. Thirty five volatile aromatic compounds were found in tarhana samples. The octanoic acid from acids, benzaldehyde (CAS) phenylmethanal from aldehydes, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one from ketones, octadecane (CAS) n-octadecane form terpenes, ethyl caprylate from esters and benzenemethanol (CAS) benzyl alcohol from alcohols had the highest percentage of volatile aromatic compounds. Tarhana samples were rich source of Mn, Cu and Fe content.


Tarhana Cherry laurel Volatile aromatic compounds Minor minerals ICP-MS GC–MS 


  1. Alasalvar C, Al-Farsi M, Shahidi F (2005) Compositional characteristics and antioxidant components of cherry laurel varieties and pekmez. J Food Sci 70:47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bayrakçı HA, Bilgiçli N (2015) Influence of resistant starches on chemical and functional properties of tarhana. J Food Sci Technol 52:5335–5340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bilgiçli N (2009) Effect of buckwheat flour on chemical and functional properties of tarhana. LWT Food Sci Technol 42:514–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bilgiçli N, Ibanoğlu EŞ (2007) Effect of wheat germ and wheat bran on the fermentation activity, phytic acid content and colour of tarhana, a wheat flour–yoghurt mixture. J Food Eng 78:681–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bilgiçli N, Elgün A, Herken EN, Türker S, Ertaş N, Ibanoğlu Ş (2006) Effect of wheat germ/bran addition on the chemical, nutritional and sensory quality of tarhana, a fermented wheat flour-yoghurt product. J Food Eng 77:680–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bozkurt O, Gürbüz NO (2008) Comparison of lactic acid contents between dried and frozen tarhana. Food Chem 108:198–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Çağlar A, Erol N, Elgün MS (2013) Effect of carob flour substitution on chemical and functional properties of tarhana. J Food Process Preserv 37:670–675Google Scholar
  8. Çelik I, Işık F, Şimşek Ö, Gürsoy O (2005) The effect s of the addition of baker’s yeast on the functional properties and quality of tarhana, a traditional fermented food. Czech J Food Sci 23:190–195Google Scholar
  9. Colak A, Özer A, Dincer B, Güner S, Ayaz FA (2005) Diphenolases from two cultivars of cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem.) fruits at an early stage of maturation. Food Chem 90:801–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Çolak H, Hampikyan H, Bingöl EB, Çetin Ö, Akhan M, Turgay SI (2012) Determination of mould and aflatoxin contamination in tarhana, a Turkish fermented food. Sci World J 2012:1–6. doi: 10.1100/2012/218679 Google Scholar
  11. Dağlioğlu O (2000) Tarhana as a traditional Turkis fermented cereal food. Its recipe, production and composition. Nahrung 44:85–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Değirmencioğlu N, Göçmen D, Dağdelen A, Dağdelen F (2005) Influence of tarhana herb (Echinophora sibthorpiana) on fermentation of tarhana, Turkish traditional fermented food. Food Technol Biotechnol 43:175–179Google Scholar
  13. Değirmencioğlu N, Gürbüz O, Herken EN, Yıldız AY (2016) The impact of drying techniques on phenolic compound, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of oat flour tarhana. Food Chem 194:587–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Demir MK (2014) Use of quinoa flour in the production of gluten-free tarhana. Food Sci Technol Res 20:1087–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Erbaş M, Certel M, Uslu MK (2005) Microbiological and chemical properties of tarhana during fermentation and storage as wet—sensorial properties of Tarhana soup. LWT Food Sci Technol 38:409–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Erbaş M, Uslu MK, Erbaş MÖ, Certel M (2006) Effects of fermentation and storage on the organic and fatty acid contents of tarhana, a Turkish fermented cereal food. J Food Compos Anal 19:294–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Erkan H, Çelik S, Bilği B, Köksel H (2006) A new approach for the utilization of barley in food products: Barley tarhana. Food Chem 97:12–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. FAO/WHO World Health Organization (2000) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. WHO Technical Report Series 896. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  19. Gocmen D, Gürbüz O, Rouseff RL, Smoot JM, Dağdelen AF (2004) Gas chromatographic-olfactometric characterization of aroma active compounds in sun-dried and vacuum-dried tarhana. Eur Food Res Technol 218:573–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gürbüz O, Göçmen D, Özmen N, Dağdelen F (2010) Effects of yeast, fermentation time, and preservation methods on Tarhana. Prep Biochem Biotechnol 40:263–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hayta M, Alpaslan M, Baysar A (2002) Effect of drying methods on functional properties of tarhana: a wheat flour–yogurt mixture. J Food Sci 67:740–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hricova A, Fejer J, Libiakova G, Szabova M, Gazo J, Gajdosova A (2016) Characterization of phenotypic and nutritional properties of valuable Amaranthus cruentus L. mutants. Turk J Agric For 40:761–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ibanoğlu Ş, Maskan M (2002) Effect of cooking on the drying behaviour of tarhana dough, a wheat flour–yoghurt mixture. J Food Eng 54:119–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ibanoğlu Ş, Ibanoğlu E, Ainsworth P (1999) Effect of different ingredients on the fermentation activity in tarhana. Food Chem 64:103–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Islam A (2002) “Kiraz” cherry laurel. N Z Crop Hortic 30:301–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kalyoncu IH, Ersoy N, Elidemir AY, Dolek C (2013) Mineral and some physico-chemical composition of ‘Karayemis’ (Prunus laurocerasus L.) fruits grown in Northeast Turkey. World Acad Sci Eng Technol Int J Biol Vet Agric Food Eng 7:430–433Google Scholar
  27. Karabegovic IT, Stojicevic SS, Velickovic DT, Todorovic ZB, Nikolic NC, Lazic ML (2014) The effect of different extraction techniques on the composition and antioxidant activity of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) leaf and fruit extracts. Ind Crops Prod 54:142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kilci A, Gocmen D (2014a) Phenolic acid composition, antioxidant activity and phenolic content of tarhana supplemented with oat flour. Food Chem 151:547–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kilci A, Gocmen D (2014b) Changes in antioxidant activity and phenolic acid composition of tarhana with steel-cut oats. Food Chem 145:777–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kolaylı S, Küçük M, Duran C, Candan F, Dinçer B (2003) Chemical and antioxidant properties of Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. (cherry laurel) fruit grown in the black sea region. J Agric Food Chem 51:7489–7494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Köse E, Çağındı ÖS (2002) An investigation into the use of different ours in tarhana. Int J Food Sci Technol 37:219–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kurtulmuş F, Gürbüz O, Değirmencioğlu N (2014) Discriminating drying method of tarhana using computer vision. J Food Process Eng 37:362–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liyana-Pathirana CM, Shahidi F, Alasalvar C (2006) Antioxidant activity of cherry laurel fruit (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem.) and its concentrated juice. Food Chem 99:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Orhan I, Akkol E (2011) Estimation of neuroprotective effects of Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. (cherry laurel) by in vitro methods. Food Res Int 44:818–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Özdestan Ö, Üren A (2013) Biogenic amine content of tarhana: a traditional fermented food. Int J Food Prop 16:416–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Özel S, Şabanoğlu S, Çon AH, Şimşek Ö (2015) Diversity and stability of yeast species during the fermentation of tarhana. Food Biotechol 29:117–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Plessas S, Fisher A, Koureta K, Psarianos C, Nigam P, Koutinas AA (2008) Application of Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and L. helveticus for sourdough bread making. Food Chem 106:985–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rodriguez H, Curiel JA, Landete JM, Rivas BDL, Felipe FLd, Cordoves CG, Mancheno JM, Munoz R (2009) Food phenolics and lactic acid bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 132:79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Şengün IY, Dennis SN, Karapinar M, Jakobsen M (2009) Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from tarhana, a traditional Turkish fermented food. Int J Food Microbiol 135:105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Settanni L, Tangüler H, Moschetti G, Reale S, Gargano V, Erten H (2011) Evolution of fermenting microbiota in tarhana produced under controlled technological conditions. Food Microbiol 28:1367–1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tamer CE, Kumral A, Asan M, Şahin I (2007) Chemical compositions of traditional tarhana having different formulations. J Food Process Preserv 31:116–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tarakçı Z, Doğan IS, Koca AF (2004) A traditional fermented Turkish soup, tarhana, formulated with corn flour and whey. Int J Food Sci Technol 39:455–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tarakçı Z, Anıl M, Koca AF, Islam A (2013) Effects of adding cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis) on some physicochemical and functional properties and sensorial quality of tarhana. Qual Assur Saf Crops Food 5:347–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Turantaş F, Kemahlioğlu K (2012) Fate of some pathogenic bacteria and molds in Turkish tarhana during fermentation and storage period. J Food Sci Technol 49:601–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Uçar A, Çakiroğlu FP (2011) Comparison of some chemical and microbiological quality of homemade tarhana in Ankara, Turkey. J Food Agric Environ 9:34–37Google Scholar
  46. Üstün NS, Tosun I (2003) A research on composition of wild cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem.). J Food Technol 1:80–82Google Scholar
  47. Yıldız H, Ercişli S, Narmanlioğlu HK, Güçlü S, Akbulut M, Türkoğlu Z (2014) The main quality attributes of non-sprayed cherry Laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem.) genotypes. Genetica 46:129–136Google Scholar
  48. Yılmaz MT, Sert D, Demir MK (2010) Rheological properties of tarhana soup enriched with whey concentrate as a function of concentration and temperature. J Texture Stud 41:863–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering, Engineering FacultyOndokuz Mayis UniversitySamsunTurkey
  2. 2.Department Food Engineering, Agricultural FacultyOrdu UniversityOrduTurkey

Personalised recommendations