Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 53, Issue 9, pp 3532–3542 | Cite as

Gluten-free starch noodles from sweet potato with reduced starch digestibility and enhanced protein content

  • Renjusha Menon
  • G. Padmaja
  • A. N. Jyothi
  • V. Asha
  • M. S. Sajeev
Original Article

Abstract

Sweet potato starch (SPS) noodles despite being gluten-free, has low nutritional value as it lacks proteins, minerals, vitamins etc. The objective of this study was to develop gluten-free starch noodles from sweet potato with enhanced protein content through fortification with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and to study the effect of protein fortification and blending SPS with banana (BS), cassava (CS) and mung bean (MBS) starches and annealed cassava starch (ACS) in reducing the starch digestibility. The highest protein retention in cooked noodles was obtained for 20 % WPC fortification, while the lowest starch digestibility was observed for 40 % BS fortified noodles followed by 50 % ACS fortified noodles. The highest resistant starch (RS) retention was for BS and ACS fortified noodles, which also had medium glycemic index of 66.3 (BS) and 67.2 (ACS). High sensory scores were obtained for the BS and 20 % WPC fortified noodles. The study showed that protein and/or BS fortification with SPS could enhance the acceptability as well as functional value of SPS noodles.

Keywords

Sweet potato Starch noodles Starch digestibility Resistant starch 

References

  1. AACC (2000) Method 66-50, approved methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, 10th edn. USA.AACC/Eagan Press, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  2. AOAC (1995) Official methods of analysis, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Asha V, Jyothi AN, Padmaja G, Sheriff JT, Jeevaratnam K (2014) Preparation and characterization of a low-calorie pearl sago from physically modified cassava starch. Trends Carbohydr Res 6:33–40Google Scholar
  4. Björck I, Liljeberg H, Ostman E (2000) Low glycemic-index foods. Brit J Nutr 83:149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Briani G, Bruttomesso D, Bilardo G, Giorato C, Duner E, Iori E et al (2006) Guar-enriched pasta and guar gum in the dietary treatment of type II diabetes. Phytother Res 1:177–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chansri R, Puttanlek C, Rungsadthong V, Ultapap D (2005) Characteristics of clear noodles prepared from edible canna starches. J Food Sci 70:S337–S342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen Z, Sagis L, Legger A, Linssen JPH, Schols HA, Voragen AGJ (2002) Evaluation of starch noodles made from three typical Chinese sweet potato starches. J Food Sci 67:3342–3347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen Z, Schols HA, Varagen AGJ (2003a) Physicochemical properties of starches obtained from three varieties of Chinese sweet potatoes. J Food Sci 68:431–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen Z, Schols HA, Varagen AGJ (2003b) Starch granule size strongly determines starch noodle processing and noodle quality. J Food Sci 68:1584–1589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Choo CL, Noor Aziah AA (2010) Effects of banana flour and β-glucan on the nutritional and sensory evaluation of noodles. Food Chem 119:34–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chung CLS, Moughan PJ, Awati A, Morton HR (2009) The influence of whey protein and glycol macropeptide on satiety in adult humans. Physiol Behav 96:162–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Collado LS, Corke H (1997) Properties of starch noodles as affected by sweet potato genotype. Cereal Chem 74:182–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Collado LS, Mabesa LB, Oates CG, Corke H (2001) Bihon-type noodles from heat moisture treated sweet potato starch. J Food Sci 66:604–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Debbous A, Doetkott C (1996) Effect of process variables on spaghetti quality. Cereal Chem 73:673–677Google Scholar
  15. Englyst HN, Kingman SM, Cummings JH (1992) Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr 46:S33–S50Google Scholar
  16. Faisant N, Buleon A, Colonna P, Molis C, Lartigue S, Galmiche JP, Champ M (1995) Digestion of raw banana starch in the small intestine of healthy humans: structural features of resistant starch. Brit J Nutr 73:111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fu BX (2008) Asian noodles: history, classification, raw materials and processing. Food Res Int 41:888–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gelencsér T, Gal V, Hodsayi M, Salgo A (2008) Evaluation of quality and digestibility characteristics of resistant starch enriched pasta. Food Bioprocess Technol 1:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gomez M, Ronda F, Cabellero PA, Blanco CA, Rosell CM (2007) Functionality of different hydrocolloids on the quality and shelf-life of yellow layer cakes. Food Hydrocoll 21:167–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goñi I, Garcia-Alonso C, Calixto FS (1997) A starch hydrolysis procedure to estimate glycemic index. Nutr Res 17:427–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Green PHR, Cellier C (2007) Celiac disease. N Engl J Med 357:1731–1743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Green PHR, Jabri B (2003) Celiac disease. Lancet 362:383–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hager AS, Axel C, Arendt EK (2011) Status of carbohydrates and dietary fiber in gluten-free diets. Cereal Foods World 56:109–114Google Scholar
  24. Holm J, Bjőrck I, Ostrowska S, Eliasson AC, Asp NG, Larsson K, Lundquist I (1983) Digestibility of amylose-lipid complexes in vitro and in vivo. Starch 35:294–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Internet: Celiac disease. Downloaded from http://www.penford.com on 05 Jan 2015
  26. Jenkins AL (2007) The glycemic index: looking back 25 years. Cereal Foods World 52:50–53Google Scholar
  27. Jyothi GK (2012). Process optimization for the production of traditional and functional pasta and flakes from sweet potato. Thesis, University of Kerala, p 312Google Scholar
  28. Jyothi GK, Renjusha M, Padmaja G, Sajeev MS, Moorthy SN (2011) Nutritional and functional characteristics of protein fortified pasta from sweet potato. Food Nutr Sci 2:944–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jyothi GK, Renjusha M, Padmaja G, Sajeev MS, Moorthy SN (2012) Evaluation of nutritional and physico-mechanical characteristics of dietary fiber enriched sweet potato pasta. Eur Food Res Technol 234:467–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kaur A, Shevkani K, Singh N, Sharma P, Kaur S (2015) Effect of guar gum and xanthan gum on pasting and noodle-making properties of potato, corn and mung bean starches. J Food Sci Technol 52(12):8113–8121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim YS, Wiesenborn DP, Lorenzen JH, Berglund P (1996) Suitability of edible bean and potato starches for starch noodles. Cereal Chem 73:302–308Google Scholar
  32. Lii CY, Chang SM (1981) Characterization of red bean (Phaseolus radiatus var. Aurea) starch and its noodle quality. J Food Sci 46:78–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Limroongreungrat K, Huang YW (2007) Pasta products made from sweet potato fortified with soy protein. LWT Food Sci Technol 40:200–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liu H, Eskin NAM, Cui SW (2003) Interaction of wheat and rice starches with yellow mustard mucilage. Food Hydrocoll 17:863–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Madhusudhan B, Tharanathan RN (1995) Legume and cereal starch—why difference in digestibility? Part I. Isolation and composition of legume (green gram and bengal gram) starches. Starch 47:165–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mandala I, Karabela D, Kostaropoulos A (2007) Physical properties of breads containing hydrocolloids stored at low temperature. I. Effect of chilling. Food Hydrocoll 21:1397–1406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mastromatteo M, Ianetti M, Civica V, Sepielli G, Del Nobile MA (2012) Effect of inulin addition on the properties of gluten-free pasta. Food Nutr Sci 3:22–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mestres C, Colonna P, Buleon A (1988) Characteristics of starch networks within rice flour noodles and mung bean starch vermicelli. J Food Sci 53:1809–1812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Moorthy SN, Padmaja G (2002) A rapid titrimetric method for the determination of starch content of cassava tubers. J Root Crops 28:30–37Google Scholar
  40. Nugent AP (2005) Health properties of resistant starch. Br Nutr Found Nutr Bull 30:27–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Padalino L, Mastromatteo M, Sepielli G, Del Nobile MA (2011) Formulation optimization of gluten-free functional spaghetti based on maize flour and oat bran enriched in β glucans. Materials 4:2119–2135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Padalino L, Mastromatteo M, Lecce L, Cozzolino F, Del Nobile MA (2013) Manufacture and characterization of gluten-free spaghetti with vegetable flour. J Cereal Sci 57:333–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Panlasigui LN, Thomson LU, Jenkins DJA, Juliano BO, Perez CO, Yiu S (1990) Starch digestibility and glycemic response to extruded high amylose rice noodles. Trans Nat Acad Sci Technol 12:109–127Google Scholar
  44. Rai S, Kaur A, Singh B (2014) Quality characteristics of gluten free cookies prepared from different flour combinations. J Food Sci Technol 51:785–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Renjusha M, Padmaja G, Sajeev MS, Sheriff JT (2012) Effect of fortification with different starches on starch digestibility, textural and ultrastructural characteristics of sweet potato spaghetti. J Root Crops 38:157–167Google Scholar
  46. Renjusha M, Padmaja G, Sajeev MS (2015) Ultrastructural and starch digestibility characteristics of sweet potato spaghetti: effects of edible gums and fibers. Int J Food Prop 18:1231–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ritthiruangdej P, Parnbankled S, Donchedee S, Wongsagonsup R (2011) Physical, chemical, textural and sensory properties of dried wheat noodles supplemented with unripe banana flour. Kasetsart J Nat Sci 45:500–509Google Scholar
  48. Sandhu KS, Lim S (2008) Digestibility of legume starches as influenced by their physical and structural properties. Carbohydr Polym 71:245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. SAS (2010) SAS/STAT software version 9.3, SAS Institute Inc., CaryGoogle Scholar
  50. Schoch TJ, Maywald EC (1968) Preparation and properties of various legume starches. Cereal Chem 45:564–573Google Scholar
  51. Schoenlechner R, Drausinger J, Ottenschlaeger V, Jurackova K, Berghofer E (2010) Functional properties of gluten-free pasta produced from amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 65:339–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sharma S, Singh N, Katyal M (2016) Effect of gelatinized-retrograded and extruded starches on characteristics of cookies, muffins and noodles. J Food Sci Technol 53(5):2482–2491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shevkani K, Singh N (2014) Influence of kidney bean, field pea and amaranth protein isolates on the characteristics of starch-based gluten-free muffins. Int J Food Sci Technol 49:2237–2244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Singh U, Voraputhaporn W, Rao PV, Jambunathan R (1989) Physicochemical characteristics of pigeon pea and mung bean starches and their noodle quality. J Food Sci 54:1293–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Singh N, Singh J, Sodhi NS (2002) Morphological, thermal, rheological and noodle-making properties of potato and corn starch. J Sci Food Agric 82:1376–1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Susanna S, Prabhasankar P (2013) A study on the development of gluten free pasta and its biochemical and immunological validation. LWT Food Sci Technol 50:613–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tam LM, Corke H, Tan WT, Li J, Collado LS (2004) Production of Bihon-type noodles from maize starch differing in amylose content. Cereal Chem 81:475–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tan H-Z, Li Z-G, Tan B (2009) Starch noodles: history, classification, materials, processing, structure, nutrition, quality evaluating and improving. Food Res Int 42:551–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tester RF, Morrison WR (1990) Swelling and gelatinization of cereal starches I. Effects of amylopectin, amylose and lipids. Cereal Chem 67:551–557Google Scholar
  60. Thao HM, Noomhorm A (2011) Physiochemical properties of sweet potato and mung bean starch and their blends for noodle production. J Food Process Technol 2(105):1000. doi:10.4172/2157-7110.105 Google Scholar
  61. Tian SJ, Rickard JE, Blanshard JMV (1991) Physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch. J Sci Food Agric 57:459–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Villalobos RR, Diaz PO, Acevedo EA, Tovar J, Perez LAB (2008) Composite wheat plantain starch salted noodles: preparation, proximal composition and in vitro starch digestibility. Interciencia 33:658–662Google Scholar
  63. Zavareze ER, Dias ARG (2011) Impact of heat-moisture treatment and annealing in starches: a review. Carbohydr Polym 83:317–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zhang P, Hamaker BR (2012) Banana starch structure and digestibility. Carbohyd Polym 87:1552–1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Crop UtilizationICAR-Central Tuber Crops Research InstituteThiruvananthapuramIndia

Personalised recommendations