Journal of Food Science and Technology

, Volume 53, Issue 6, pp 2569–2579 | Cite as

Composition and functionality of whole jamun based functional confection

Original Article
  • 314 Downloads

Abstract

Whole jamun based functional confection (WJFC) was developed from an optimized blend (through response surface methodology) containing 26.585 % paste of jamun pulp with adhering skin, 2 % jamun seed powder, hydrocolloid mixture (2.289 % agar, 1.890 % pectin and 27.236 % polydextrose), antimicrobials (0.022 % benzoic acid and 0.085 % sorbic acid), and 40 % added water. The confection also contained 0.08 % sucralose, 0.06 % citric acid and 100 mg CaCl2.2H2O/g pectin. The confection was found to be rich in minerals like Ca, Mg, K, Na and P, with prebiotic activity and low glycemic index (48.1). Additionally, WJFC had reduced calorie (1.48 kcal/g) and high dietary fiber content (15.49 ± 0.058 g/100 g (db)). The antioxidant potential measured as DPPH radical scavenging activity and FRAP with different extraction solvents was found to range between 0.26 ± 0.01 and 0.98 ± 0.04 mg BHA/g and 2.57 ± 0.97 and 18.17 ± 1.30 μM Fe2+/g, respectively, with highest yield obtained for 50 % aq. ethanolic extract. Moreover, the antioxidant potential was observed to be dose dependent with IC50 values as 9.89 and 2.75 mg (db) against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals, respectively. WJFC was found to suppress α-amylase activity and retard glucose dialysis depicting the antidiabetic effect.

Keywords

Syzygium cumini Confection Antioxidant Antidiabetic Amylase inhibition Glycemic index Prebiotic effect Glucose dialysis retardation 

References

  1. Ahmed F, Urooj A (2010) In vitro studies on the hypoglycemic potential of Ficus racemosa stem bark. J Sci Food Agric 90(3):397–401Google Scholar
  2. Ali RB, Atangwho IJ, Kuar N, Ahmad M, Mahmud R, Asmawi MZ (2013) In vitro and in vivo effects of standardized extract and fractions of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits pericarp on lead carbohydrate digesting enzymes. BMC Complemen Altern Med 13(1):39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AOAC (2012) Official methods of analysis, 19th edn. AOAC, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  4. Atala E, Vásquez L, Speisky H, Lissi E, Lopez-Alarcon C (2009) Ascorbic acid contribution to ORAC values in berry extracts: anevaluation by the ORAC-pyrogallol red methodology. Food Chem 113:331–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Augustin LSA, Dal Maso L, La Vecchia C, et al. (2001) Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study. Ann Oncol 12(11):1533–1538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bali S (2007) A process for the manufacture of herbal candy. Patent No. 210880, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Benherlal PS, Arumughan C (2007) Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant studies on Syzygium cumini fruit. J Sci Food Agric 87(14):2560–2569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benzie IF, Strain JJ (1999) Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods Enzymol 299:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Björck I, Liljeberg H, Östman E (2000) Low glycaemic-index foods. Brit J Nutr 83(S1):S149–S155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cappa C, Lavelli V, Mariotti M (2015) Fruit candies enriched with grape skin powders: physicochemical properties. LWT Food Sci Technol 62(1):569–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chau CF, Huang YL, Lee MH (2003) In vitro hypoglycemic effects of different insoluble fiber-rich fractions prepared from the peel of Citrus sinensis L. cv. Liucheng. J Agric Food Chem 51(22):6623–6626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chavan UD, Shahidi F, Naczk M (2001) Extraction of condensed tannins from beach pea (Lathyrus maritimus L.) as affected by different solvents. Food Chem 75(4):509–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chethan S, Sreerama YN, Malleshi NG (2008) Mode of inhibition of finger millet malt amylases by the millet phenolics. Food Chem 111(1):187–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chowdhury P, Ray RC (2007) Fermentation of jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) fruits to form red wine. ASEAN Food J 14(1):15–23Google Scholar
  15. Chung HJ, Lim HS, Lim ST (2006) Effect of partial gelatinization and retrogradation on the enzymatic digestion of waxy rice starch. J Cereal Sci 43(3):353–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clifford MN (2000) Anthocyanins: nature, occurrence and dietary burden. J Sci Food Agric 80(7):1063–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dar BN, Ahsan H, Wani SM, Dalal MR (2011) Effect of CaCl2, citric acid and storage period on physico-chemical characteristics of cherry candy. J Food Sci Eng 1(2):79–85Google Scholar
  18. Das S, Sarma G (2009) Study of the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of the pulp of Eugenia jambolana (jamun) in albino rats. J Clin Diag Res 3(2):1466–1474Google Scholar
  19. Fisher EL, Ahn-Jarvis J, Gu J, Weghorst CM, Vodovotz Y (2014) Assessment of physicochemical properties, dissolution kinetics and storage stability of a novel strawberry confection designed for delivery of chemopreventive agents. Food Str 1(2):171–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Foster-Powdell K, Holt SHA, Brand-Miller JC (2002) International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 76:5–56Google Scholar
  21. Franceschi S, Dal Masco L, Augustin L, Negri E, et al. (2001) Dietary glycemic load and colorectal cancer risk. Ann Oncol 12(2):173–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. FSSAI (Food Safety and Standards Authority of India) (2011) Food safety and Standards (Contaminants, toxins and residues) Regulations. Internet: http://www.fssai.gov.in/Portals/0/Pdf/Food%20safety%20and%20standards%20(contaminats,%20toxins%20and%20residues)%20regulation,%202011.pdf (accessed on 15 December 2013)
  23. Goñi I, Garcia-Alonso A, Saura-Calixto F (1997) A starch hydrolysis procedure to estimate glycemic index. Nutr Res 17(3):427–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gourgue C, Champ M, Guillon F, Delort-Laval J (1994) Effect of extrusion-cooking on the hypoglycaemic properties of citrus fiber: an in-vitro study. J Sci Food Agric 64(4):493–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. He J, Giusti MM (2010) Anthocyanins: natural colorants with health-promoting properties. Annual Rev Food Sci Technol 1:163–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Helmstädter A (2008) Syzygium cumini (L.) SKEELS (Myrtaceae) against diabetes–125 years of research. Die Pharmazie-Int J Pharmaceut Sci 63(2):91–101Google Scholar
  27. Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Venkatesh P (2005) Influence of seed extract of Syzygium cumini (jamun) on mice exposed to different doses of γ-radiation. J Radiat Res 46(1):59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Augustin LS, Franceschi S, et al. (2002) Glycemic index: overview of implications in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 76(1):266S–273SGoogle Scholar
  29. Karthic K, Kirthiram KS, Sadasivam S, Thayumanavan B, Palvannan T (2008) Identification of α-amylase inhibitors from Syzygium cumini Linn seeds. Indian J Exp Biol 46(9):677–680Google Scholar
  30. Kaur S, Das M (2015) Nutritional and functional characterization of barley flaxseed based functional dry soup mix. J Food Sci Technol 52(9):5510–5521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim HJ, Chen F, Wu C, Wang X, Chung HY, Jin Z (2004) Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil and its components. J Agric Food Chem 52:2849–2854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kotowaroo MI, Mahomoodally MF, Gurib-Fakim A, Subratty AH (2006) Screening of traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants of Mauritius for possible α-amylase inhibitory effects in vitro. Phytother Res 20(3):228–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kunyanga CN, Imungi JK, Okoth MW, Biesalski HK, Vadivel V (2012) Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of methanolic extract of raw and traditionally processed Kenyan indigenous food ingredients. LWT Food Sci Technol 45(2):269–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lee J, Durst RW, Wrolstad RE (2005) Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the pH differential method: collaborative study. J AOAC Int 88(5):1269–1278Google Scholar
  35. López G, Ros G, Rincón F, Periago MJ, Martinez MC, Ortuno J (1996) Relationship between physical and hydration properties of soluble and insoluble fiber of artichoke. J Agric Food Chem 44(9):2773–2778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maria d SMR, Alves ,RE, de Brito ,ES, Pérez-Jiménez J, Saura-Calixto F, Mancini-Filho J (2010) Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities of 18 non-traditional tropical fruits from Brazil. Food Chem 121(4):996–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McMillan-Price J, Brand-Miller J (2006) Low-glycaemic index diets and body weight regulation. Int J Obes 30:S40–S46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moongngarm A, Trachoo N, Sirigungwan N (2011) Low molecular weight carbohydrates, prebiotic content, and prebiotic activity of selected food plants in Thailand. Adv J Food Sci Technol 3(4):269–274Google Scholar
  39. Muizniece-Brasava S, Dukalska L, Kampuse S, et al. (2011) Influence of active packaging on the shelf life of apple-black currant marmalade candies. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 56:555–563Google Scholar
  40. Nasrin TAA, Hossain MA, Molla MM (2007) Standardization of shelf-stable aonla, carambola, papaya, pineapple, and watermelon rind candies. Bangladesh J Agri Res 32(4):621–628Google Scholar
  41. Nuñez-López MA, Paredes-López O, Reynoso-Camacho R (2013) Functional and hypoglycemic properties of nopal cladodes (O. ficus-indica) at different maturity stages using in vitro and in vivo tests. J Agric Food Chem 61(46):10981–10986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pietrzyk S, Gałkowska D, Fortuna T, Tomasiak IB, Wypchoł A (2010) Influence of storage conditions of candied fruits enriched with vitamin C by different methods on its content. Potravinarstvo 4(2):65–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rana S, Siddiqui S, Goyal A (2015) Extension of the shelf life of guava by individual packaging with cling and shrink films. J Food Sci Technol 52(12):8148–8155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ranganna S (2007) Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. Tata McGraw-Hill Education, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  45. Ravi K, Rajasekaran S, Subramanian S (2005) Antihyperlipidemic effect of Eugenia jambolana seed kernel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 43(9):1433–1439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Reddy NS, Anarthe SJ, Raghavendra NM (2010) In Vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of Asystasia gangetica (Chinese Violet) Linn.(Acanthaceae). Int J Res Pharmaceut Biomed Sci 1(2):72–75Google Scholar
  47. Rekha N, Balaji R, Deecaraman M (2008) Effect of aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini pulp on antioxidant defense system in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Iran J Pharm Th 7(2):137–145Google Scholar
  48. Reyes-Pérez F, Salazar-García MG, Romero-Baranzini AL, Islas-Rubio AR, Ramírez-Wong B (2013) Estimated glycemic index and dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran. Plant Food Hum Nutr 68(1):52–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sadasivam S, Manickam A (2008) Biochemical methods. New age international (p) Limited Publishers, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  50. Savant V (2012) Jelly confectionery products having a stabilizer/fiber blend. Patent No. 20140050837, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  51. Sawate AR, Patil VP, Ghatge PU, Kshirsagar RB, Tapre AR (2005) Studies on effect of syruping and drying methods on quality of papaya-candy. J Soils Crops 15(1):105–110Google Scholar
  52. Sehwag S (2016) Development of functional confection from whole jamun (Syzygium cumini) fruit: Ph. D. Thesis. Agricultural and Food Engineering Department. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  53. Sehwag S, Das M (2014) Nutritive, therapeutic and processing aspects of jamun, Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels: an overview. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 5(4):295–307Google Scholar
  54. Shahnawaz M, Sheikh SA (2011) Analysis of viscosity of jamun fruit juice, squash and jam at different composition to ensure the suitability of processing applications. Int J Plant Physiol Biochem 3(5):89–94Google Scholar
  55. Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 299:152–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Slavin J (2013) Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits. Nutr 5(4):1417–1435Google Scholar
  57. Sonawane S, Arya SS, Gaikwad S (2013) Use of Jambhul powder in the development of bioactive components enriched milk kulfi. J Microbio Biotech Food Sci 2(6):2440–2443Google Scholar
  58. Surinut P, Kaewsutthi S, Surakarnkul R (2003) Radical scavenging activity in fruit extracts. in III WOCMAP Congress on medicinal and Aromatic Plants-Volume 5: quality, efficacy, safety. Processing and Trade in Medicinal 679:201–203Google Scholar
  59. Upadhyay R, Mishra HN (2014) Antioxidant activity measurement of oleoresin from rosemary and sage. Ind Crop Prod 61:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wijaya A, Rusmarilin H, Lubis Z (2012) The effect of ratio of yoghurt with red fleshed guava extract and stabilizer ratio on the quality of soft candy. Eng J Food Agri 1(1)3:5–46Google Scholar
  61. Zou ML, Moughan PJ, Awati A, Livesey G (2007) Accuracy of the Atwater factors and related food energy conversion factors with low-fat, high-fiber diets when energy intake is reduced spontaneously. Am J Clin Nutr 86(6):1649–1656Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural and Food EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyKharagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations